Binary Options Signals Software Reviews Binary Today ...

Escape from Tarkov New Player Guide 2.0: 75 Pages and packed with all the information you could ever need for success!

Introduction

Greetings, this is dumnem, also known as Theorchero, but you can call me Theo. I'm an experienced Tarkov player and I'm writing this guide to try and assist new Tarkov players learn the game, because it has one hell of a learning curve. We'll be going over a lot of different aspects of this guide, and it is going to be huge. Feel free to digest this in parts.
Additionally, this is a work in progress. I will write as much as I can in one Reddit post, but subsequent parts will be in additional comments. Google Docs Version (Note: Link is placeholder atm, but here is a sneak preview!)
Disclaimer: Tarkov recently updated to .12! That's a HUGE amount of information that I need to update. Please be patient! If there is anything I have gotten wrong or may have omitted, please let me know.
This is Primarily directed towards Tarkov Novices, but should be useful for even Tarkov Veterans. It hopefully includes everything you need to know to be able to go into a Raid equipped for success and to successfully extract with gear.
Want to play with friends? Want to have fun and learn Tarkov? Check out my discord here.

Changelog

3/9/20:
  • [Updated for .12]
  • Money making strategies completed.
  • Minor grammar adjustments, adding additional medical items.
  • Added additional resources, updated old ones.
  • Hideout section complete

Table of Contents

  • Tarkov Overview - What is Escape from Tarkov?
  • Tarkov Resources - Useful links
  • Tarkov's Maps
  • Tarkov's Health System
  • Tarkov's Hideout System
  • Tarkov's Quest System and Progression
  • Tarkov's Hotkeys to Know
  • Getting Started
  • Player Scavs
  • New Player's loadouts - LL1 Traders
  • What to Loot - How to get the most money per slot
  • Stash Management - How to combat Gear Fear
  • Tarkov Economy - How do I make money?
  • What now?

Tarkov Overview - What is Escape from Tarkov?

Escape from Tarkov is a tactical, realistic, FPS with MMO elements developed by Battlestate Games. It is currently in closed Beta. The game features several maps in which your primary character, your PMC, goes into Raids in order to find and salvage loot and useful equipment to survive and thrive in Tarkov. Death is very punishing in Tarkov. If you die you lose everything you had on you when you die (with the exception of what's inside your Container and your melee weapon) including any equipment you brought with you or what you found inside the Raid.
Enemies can be players (PMCs) or Scavengers ('Scavs') that are either controlled by AI or by players. Unlike many shooters, AI enemies in Tarkov are deadly - they can and will kill you on sight. They have recently been upgraded to act more intelligently, shoot more accurately, and react to situations on the map, such as investigating noise of gunfire or searching. It features beautiful and immersive environments, intricate and in-depth weapon modification system, a complex health system, dynamic and specific loot placement, and multiple options for engagement. Do you want to play slow and stealthy, to avoid fights, or set up a deadly ambush on an unwary foe? Or do you prefer raw combat, where only your quick wit, placements of shots, and tenaciousness determines who gets out alive? It's your Tarkov. You make the rules.

Tarkov Resources - Useful links

I take no credit or responsibility for any of the content in these links. To the best of my knowledge, these are updated consistently and are accurate, but user beware.

Quick-Reference Ammo Chart

An updated ammo chart can be found on the wiki.

Tarkov Wiki

Absolutely fantastic resource. You can visit them here.
It is a massive collection of everything that we players have been able to find.
They contain trades, user-created maps, lists of ammo, parts, weapons, loot, etc. If it's in the game, it's on the Wiki, somewhere.
I highly recommend opening the wiki page for the Map that you plan on raiding in.
Factory
Customs
Woods
Shoreline
Interchange
Reserve
The Lab ('Labs')

Map Keys and You

Huge collection of all the keys in the game. These are also on the wiki, but this page has them all on one page, and tries to inform the user if the key is worth keeping or using.
Check it out here.
This section is open to revision. Mention me in a thread (or in the comments below) about a resource and I'll see about adding it here.

Tarkov's Weapon Compatibility Guide

Pretty self explanatory. Also includes a Key guide and a Mod guide.
Check it out here.

HUGE Reference Bible by Veritas

Courtesy of Veritas (Send me his reddit username?), It's located here. (Open in new tab.) Contains: Detailed information about: Ammunition, Health, Firearms, Body Armor, Helmets, Rigs & Backpacks, Labs & Quest keys. Outdated! Needs to be updated for .12

Offline Raids - Player Practice

Offline raids is a feature added for testing and learning purposes for both new and veteran players alike. It is an incredibly useful tool.
In an offline raid, your progress is not saved. This means you don't keep anything you find, keep any experience 'earned' if you successfully extract, or lose any gear when/if you die. To access OFFLINE Raids, head into a Raid normally until you see this screen. Then Check the box indicating that you want to do an OFFLINE raid and you're good to go! You even have a choice on whether or not to add AI. You can also control how many AI enemies spawn, fewer than normal or a great deal more! You can even make Scavs fight each other. (Framerates beware.)
You can control how many scavs spawn (if any) as well as a number of other paramaters. New players should use offline raids as a tool to practice shooting, controls, movement, etc.

Tarkov's Maps

Tarkov features several maps - ranging from wide, beautiful vistas to ruined factory districts, to an abandoned laboratory where illegal experiments were being conducted. It is important to learn the maps you intend to play. In order to keep your gear, you must 'extract' at one of your designated exfiltration points. Not all extracts will be active every game, and some are conditional.

To see what extracts are available to you, double tap 'O' to show raid time and your exfils. If it has a ???? it might not be open.

Factory

Gate 3 Extract
A small, fast-paced map that was primarily created for PvP. Scavs spawn in all the time. Very close quarters, shotguns and SMGs tend to dominate here. PMCs can only access one Exit (Gate 3) without the Factory Exit Key. Good place to go if you need PMC kills as action is pretty much guaranteed. It is recommended NOT to bring in a lot of gear to Factory until you are experienced.
Factory Map in PvP is best played in Duos - due to the layout of the map, a Maximum of 6 PMCs may be present in the game. Due to the split spawn points, you effectively have 'sides' that have up to 3 spawn locations that are close together. This is why it is recommended to secure/scout enemy spawn locations. If you go in with a Duo, you at max have 2 players on your side for an even 2v2, and if played smartly you can eliminate them and know your 'side' is secure from aggression for the time being.
Upon loading in, scavs usually take a couple minutes to spawn, though this depends on the server in question and isn't super reliable. For new players, the best loadout in Factory is going to be a MP-153 Loadout - using just an MBSS (or similar bag) and ammo in your pocket to fight other players and Scavs. Scavs will often spawn with AKs and other 'vendorable' weapons, so is a good source of income.
Factory is also one of the best maps to Scav into, as Scavs can typically avoid the Exit camping strategy employed by a lot of weaker or newer players in order to secure gear, because they typically have extra exfiltrations whereas PMCs without the Factory Exit Key are stuck using Gate 3.
If you go in with a modicum of gear, it is recommended to keep at least a flashbang (Zarya) in your container. This will allow you to quickly slot it into an empty chest rig or pocket so you can throw it into the exit door, this will flash enemies and is cheap to do - the one time you survive because you flashed the 3 exit campers using shotguns will make this strategy extremely valuable.

Customs

Extract map
A fairly large map that was recently expanded and is expected to receive an overhaul within a patch or two, due to the choke point design of the map. Essentially, players spawn either on 'warehouse' or 'boiler (stacks)' side. If you see a large red warehouse ('big red') near you (Customs Warehouse), then you spawned on the warehouse side. If you don't, you likely spawned near Boiler side. Players can also spawn in several places in the woods North of boilers.
This map has the most quests in the game. Geared players often come to customs to challenge other squads over Dorm loot and to fight a Scav boss. New players are usually trying to do one of several early quests, such as ‘Debut’ which tasks them with killing 5 scavs on Customs and acquiring 2 MR-133 shotguns (pump shotties) from their corpses. Construction is also a popular hotspot as it has a lot of scav spawns as well as the location for the Bronze Pocketwatch, which is Prapor’s second quest.
Customs itself does not offer very much loot on average. There are several spots which can contain decent, but the vast majority is located in a couple different locations.
Dorms is the best loot location for Customs. It has two sets, 2 story and 3 story dorms. They each have their own sections of good loot, but the best is considered to be 3 story dorms, due to the presence of the Marked Room. The marked room requires a marked key to open, and has a good chance to spawn rare loot, such as keytools, documents cases, weapons cases, and high-end weapons. Due to the nature of the high value of this room, it’s almost always contested and it’s one of the best rooms in the game to farm, albeit with difficulty to successfully extract with the loot found. Note, though the key required has a maximum amount of uses, it is a fairly cheap key, and worth buying if you like to run customs and go to Dorms.
Dorms also has a ton of early quests (Operation Aquarius, for one) with some keys being valuable to use, but most dorms keys aren’t worth that much on the market. There’s too many to list here, but make sure to check the Map Keys and You at the top of the guide to determine what the value of a particular key is.
Checkpoint (Military Checkpoint) is also a decent loot spot, though not nearly as good as Dorms. If you have the key, it has a grenade box and 2 ammo boxes which can spawn good ammo. The jacket in the blue car also can spawn good medical keys as well as medical items. It is very close to the gas station, so I’ll include that here as well.
The Gas Station is one of the possible spawn locations for the scav boss. It has loose food items, a weapon box in the side room, with two keyed rooms leading to a safe and a med bag and box. Also contains a couple registers and food spawns on the floor. The emercom key can spawn on the seat in the ambulance out front.
North of the gas station is the Antenna, which contains 3 weapon boxes, a tool box, and a med bag. Possible location for scav boss spawn, albeit rarely, and also spawns regular scavs, like checkpoint and gas station.
Beyond that, there’s scattered loot around the map in different places, but usually not enough to warrant going out of your way for. There’s also scav caches, mostly around the middle road outside construction and around the boiler area.
The scav boss for customs is 'Reshala.’ He has 5 guards that have above-average gear and can be tough to deal with solo. The guards tend to be more aggressive than normal scavs, so they can be a lot to handle but are vulnerable to fragmentation grenades or flashbangs due to their close proximity to one another. Reshala himself has a good chance to have one or more bitcoin in his pockets, as well as his unique Golden TT, which is required for a Jaegar quest and used in conjunction with other Golden TT's to purchase a Tactec, good plate carrier. Reshala may spawn either Dorms (either bldg), New Gas Station, or rarely the tower north of the gas station. Scav bosses are dangerous enemies with escorts that have above-average loot (sometimes great loot) and are hostile to everyone, Including player scavs. Scav guards will approach a player scav and basically tell them to leave the area, and if they walk closer towards the scav boss they turn hostile.
The ‘official’ spawn rate for Reshala is 35%.

Woods

Woods Map with Exfil
A very large map that is mostly just a large forest, with the occasional bunker, and the Lumber Mill in the center. The Lumber Mill is the primary point of interest, as it contains a couple quest locations and is the primary location to farm Scavs, as Scavs killed on woods are a good source of end-game keys that are hard to find.
Since the map is so large and open, sniper rifles with scopes usually reign king here. You will see a lot of players with Mosin rifles as they are a cheap way to train the Sniper skill (for a quest later on) and are capable of killing geared players and scavs alike.
Overall, not usually very populated. An early quest from Prapor sends you here to kill a number of Scavs. A good map to learn the game, as although the loot is not fantastic, you can get experience with how the game runs and operates while fighting AI and possibly getting lucky with a key find off a scav.
As of .12, Woods now houses a Scav boss that acts as a Sniper scav. He is incredibly dangerous and usually carries a tricked-out SVDS. The 7.62x54 caliber is not to be underestimated. That caliber can and will wreck your shit through what most players are capable of wearing, especially early on in a wipe. He may also carry an AK-105, so he's going to be dangerous at both short and long ranges.
He has two guards, and he typically patrols the area around the Sawmill, and carries a key to a cache nearby full of goodies. His key is part of a quest for Jaegar.
Woods also has two bunkers, one of them being an extract and requiring a key. Both bunkers have some moderate loot in them, thus worth visiting, though not necessarily worth going out of your way for them. Several quests occur around the sawmill area, which contains a good couple keys that can spawn.

Shoreline

Shoreline Map, with Loot, Exfil, etc
A very large map, notorious for its FPS hit. Generally speaking, one of the better maps for loot. The primary point of interest is the Resort, but scavs spawn there, and is primarily occupied by hatchlings (players only with hatchet, ie melee weapon) and geared players. Resort has great loot, but requires keys to access most of it.
A great map to learn though from new players as the outskirts still contains plenty of loot and combat opportunities with AI scavs. You can hit Villa, Scav Island, Weather station, Docks, etc and come out with a backpack full of valuable gear fairly easily. The Village (Not to be confused with villa) contains a lot of toolboxes which can contain lots of parts used to upgrade your Hideout.
Location of many quests, including a large quest chain where players are required to kill many, many, scavs on Shoreline. For this and other reasons, probably the best map for new players to learn the game with.
A good loot route is to hit the village (caches in it), scav island (2 med bags, 2 toolboxes, 2 weapon boxes, 1 cache), burning gas station (weapon boxes and a safe), pier (potential extract, 2 pcs 2 safes and lots of filing cabinets), and weather station. Scavs may spawn around these areas, but most players just head straight for resort anyway, so you are much less likely to encounter them, especially if you avoid Mylta power (most players hit it on the way to or leaving from the resort). Excellent route as a player scav as well.

Interchange

Detailed map
Great, great loot area, but very complex map. Old computers might face unique struggles with this map. Features a mostly-binary exfil system like Shoreline, but.. kinda worse. Exfil camping is fairly common on this map, but usually avoidable. Huge map with multiple floors and many many different stores. Communication with teammates is a challenge on this map, but the map is also fantastically detailed.
This map features a lot of loot that depends on the kind of store you're in. It's a great place to farm rare barter materials which are valuable to sell on the Flea market or to use for quests or for hideout upgrades. An early quest (from Ragman) sends you here to kill a large amount of Scavs. I'd recommend getting Ragman to level 2 and accepting his quest asap when going to Interchange, as getting this quest done can take a while as it is and you want all scav kills to count towards progress.
Both the tech stores (Techlight, Techxo, Rasmussen) and department stores (Groshan, Idea, OLI) are the primary places to hit. There’s also Kiba (weapons store) as well as Emercom and Mantis. Players have different strategies, but this map is unique in the sense that it really rewards exploring. Most stores will have things you can grab that are worth quite a bit but are often overlooked. Very popular place to go in as a Player Scav.

Reserve

Brand new map, chock full of loot. Has more complex extracts than other maps, save for Labs. Excellent place to farm rare barter items, computer parts, and especially military hardware. PMCs have limited extracts, most being conditional, and the ones that aren’t require activation of ‘power’ to turn on the extract, which alerts the map the extract has been opened and can spawn Raiders (more on them below.)
Additionally, has a scav boss by the name of Glukhar, who has multiple heavily armed guards. He has multiple spawn locations and can arrive with the train.

The Lab ('Labs')

Here's a map.
DISCLAIMER: Labs, like much of Tarkov, is under constant development, so issues may be fixed or created without warning. Always check patch notes!
Labs is a very complex map compared to the rest of Tarkov. There is a great deal more exfiltrations but many of them have requirements or a sequence of events needed to be able to extract from them. It is recommended to read the Tarkov Wiki on Labs before raiding there.

LABS IS NOT LIKE OTHER MAPS. READ THIS SECTION CAREFULLY.

Labs is a lucrative end-game raid location, comparable to 'dungeons' in other games. They are populated by tougher enemies that give greater rewards. In order to go to labs, you need to acquire a keycard, this functions like mechanical keys but instead of opening a door, they unlock your ability to select Labs for a raid.
They may be found in-raid in various locations, most notably in scavs backpacks, pockets, and in filing cabinets. They may be purchased from Therapist at LL4 for 189K Roubles. Labs are populated by a unique kind of AI enemy, Raiders.

Raiders

Raiders are the Labs form of Scavs, or AI enemies. However, unlike other maps, they cannot contain player Scavs. Raiders have a much tougher than your average scav, they are capable of advanced tactics (such as flanking) and throw grenades and use other consumables as a player would. Once 'locked' onto you, they are typically capable of killing you very quickly, even if you are wearing high-end armor.
In Tarkov, Raiders act like the avatars of Death. They are clad in USEC and BEAR equipment, as they are effectively AI PMCs. Many changes have been made to labs and specifically how Raider AI works and to prevent exploits to easily farm them as well as bugs where they could be deadlier than intended.
A general rule of thumb is not to fight Raiders directly. They can and WILL kill you. Raiders can spawn with 7N9, or 'big boy' ammo. This ammunition type is incredibly lethal to players, even those wearing the toughest armor. If you get shot in the head, doesn't matter what kind of helmet, face shield, killa helmet, etc you are wearing, you will almost certainly die.
Because Raiders are controlled by AI, they have zero ping. They may also end to immediately respond as if you were aggressive even if they did not originally know you were there - ESP Raiders effectively will prone and return fire even as you ADS and put them in your sights.
This is why engaging a Raider must be done very, very carefully. There are a few strategies that you may employ, most commonly some form of baiting them towards an area and then killing them when they arrive. Players may accomplish this by generating noise - gunfire, melee weapon hitting walls, crates, etc, player deaths, players Mumbling (F1 by default) can all attract Raiders to investigate your area.
Due to the high power of Raiders, players often go in with minimal loadouts and seek to avoid conflict with other players, especially geared ones. Most players avoid PvP in Labs, though a good portion of the playerbase thoroughly enjoys hunting down poorly-geared players after they kill a few Raiders for them.
As such, players will lay prone in a hallway, or crouch in a room, and attract Raiders to enter their domicile by opening the door, and immediately headshotting them. Few Raiders actually wear helmets (though some do) so most players specialize in 'flesh ammo' or, ammunition that foregoes armor penetration in favor of raw damage in order to kill Raiders more reliably, because Raiders have slightly higher head health than PMCs do.
Raiders spawn with a great variety of equipment, weapons, armor, and materials such as medication or hideout parts. They tend to have chest armor and may have different helmets. Their pockets can contain Labs keycards, morphine, Ifaks, cash, and other items. They're always worth checking.
Raiders are a good source of grenades, they will often have F-1's and Zarya's in their rig or pockets that you can use to fight off players and Raiders alike.
Recently, changes have been made to Labs to make them less profitable so that other maps are more appealing. The cost and rarity of keycards increased, as well as reducing the frequency that raiders spawn, so that they come in more infrequent groups but also tighter in formation, while also lowering the overall output of individual Raiders, so that they are less likely to have a bunch of extra materials, such as grenades and other items.
Experience Farming on Labs
Labs is one of the best places to farm experience in the entire game. Killing a Raider with a headshot awards 1100 Experience. This does not include any looting, inspection (searching bodies), examine, streak, or other experience.
Killing a large sequence of Raiders gives additional bonus experience in the form of Streak rewards, usually 100 bonus exp per additional kill.
Surviving the raid multiplies all of these sources of experience by 1.5x
Changes coming to Labs
Disclaimer: I am not a BSG developer or employee. This is what I have seen on this subreddit and heard elsewhere. Some might be purely rumor, but other points are confirmed by Nikita Labs is undergoing constant changes. Nikita and BSG take feedback seriously, and always consider what the players are telling them. It known that Labs will eventually be accessed via the Streets of Tarkov map, and will require you to enter that map, make it to the labs entrance, and then extract from Labs to return to Streets of Tarkov and exfil from there as well. This will likely add an additional layer of risk to being ambushed for your goodies along your way out, as well as punishing damage taken in labs more severely. Additionally, keycards will have a limited number of uses, and may open more than one room.
The full extent of the changes coming is not known.
Remember, you can load a map in OFFLINE mode to practice against bots or to learn the map without fear of losing gear.

Tarkov's Health System

Tarkov Wiki Article
Tarkov has a very advanced health system, and while it might seem overwhelming at first, you'll get the hang of it rather quickly. It features a very wide variety of effects and injury, including hydration, energy, blood pressure, blood loss, fractures, contusion, intoxication, exhaustion, tremors and more.
Not all of the Health System is implemented yet. Expect changes!
Your character (PMC, or otherwise) has a combined Health of 435. Each of his limbs have separate health. Taking damage to a limb that reduces it to 0 'blacks' that limb. Blacked limbs are a problem. They greatly impair the activities your PMC performs, and taking damage in a blacked limb amplifies the damage by a multiplier and spreads that damage among your other non-black limbs equally. You cannot heal a blacked limb without the use of a Surgical Kit.
Notes: Bloodloss applies damage to the affected limb and can be spread like other damage to a blacked limb. Treat immediately. Also causes significant dehydration! Bloodloss also helps level your Vitality skill, which in turn gives you experience towards your Health skill, which is necessary to reach level 2 of in order to improve your hideout.
Losing a limb applies additional effects. Fractures also apply these effects but not the damage amplification (Except for damage if running on fractured leg.) Fractures require specialized medical kits to heal.
Dehydration is what happens when your Hydration level reaches 0. You can view your Hydration level in your gear page, at the bottom left. Becoming dehydrated is extremely bad. You take constant damage. Taking dehydration damage can kill you if you have a black chest or head. Restoring hydration helps train Metabolism, which improves positive effects from food and drink.
Head/Chest: Bullet damage resulting in losing your head or chest is instant death. Note: Bloodloss resulting in your Head/Chest being black does not result in death, but any damage to them beyond that point will! A back chest will causes you to cough (much like your stomach!)
Painkillers: Prevents coughing that comes from your chest. Doesn't help otherwise.
Stomach: Massively increased rate of dehydration and energy loss. You must find liquids or exit the Raid soon. Additionally, your PMC will cough sputter loudly, attracting attention. A black stomach multiplies damage taken by 1.5 and redistributes that damage across your entire health pool.
Painkillers: Significantly reduces the frequency and volume of the coughs.
Arms: Makes activities like searching, reloading, etc, take additional time, as well as adding a sway, reducing accuracy. Arms have a .7x damage multiplier.
Painkillers: Reduces sway, removes debuff Pain.
Legs: Blacked legs cause your PMC to stumble and be unable to run. Blacked legs have a 1x damage multiplier.
Painkillers: Allows you to walk at full speed and to run.
WARNING: Running while your legs are blacked or fractured WILL DAMAGE YOU.
Health Items
Tarkov features many health items - 'Aid' items, which can be used to restore your characters health and to fix ailments or injuries he receives as the result of combat or mishaps. The two most important health conditions to consider are bloodloss and fractures, which have both been covered above. Some food items may have ancillary effects, such as losing hydration.
Since in the current patch the only ailments to worry about are bleeding and fractures, it changes which health items are most necessary. We'll go over them below.

Health Restoration

Medical Items on Wiki
AI-2 medkit
The newb's medical kit. You receive several of these when you start Tarkov - they'll already be in your stash. Available from Level I Therapist, they are cheap and effective way of healing early in the game. They will not stop bloodloss. Because of this, you also need to bring bandages or a higher-grade medical kit. Affectionately called 'little cheeses' by the Tarkov community. Using it takes 2 seconds, and because of how cheap it is, it's often brought in by higher level players to supplement their healing without draining their main kit (which is capable of healing bloodloss or sometimes fractures). Due to its short use time, it's often very useful during combat as you can take cover and quickly recover damage taken to a vital limb. They're also useful as you can buy them from Therapist to heal yourself if you died in a raid.
Bandages
The newb's bloodloss solution. Available from Therapist at Level I. A better version, the Army Bandage is available at Level II, after a quest. Mostly obsolete after unlocking the Car Medical kit, but some players value them due to the Car's overall low health pool. Activating takes 4 seconds, and removes bloodloss to one limb.
Splint
The newb's solution to fractures. Cheap, takes five seconds to use, and takes up 1 slot. Fractures are much more common this patch, due to them being added back in the game from standard bullet wounds, not just drops. Available from Therapist at Level I, no quest needed. Can be used to craft a Salewa.
Alu Splint
More advanced form of the normal split. Works the same, but has up to 5 uses. Recommended to carry in your container if possible, due to frequency of fractures from gunfire.
CMS (Compact Medical Surgery) Kit
New medical item added in .12, fantastic item. Allows you to perform field surgery, removing the black limb state and allowing you to heal it beyond 0 hp. Takes 16 seconds to use, and cannot be cancelled so make sure you are safe if you are using it! Will reduce the maximum health of the limb it's used on by 40-55%, but will effectively remove all negative effects incurred by having a black limb. Highly recommended to carry in your container for emergencies. Can be bartered from Jaeger LL1, and purchased for roubles LL2.
Surv12 field surgical kit
Same as the compact surgical kit, but takes 4 seconds longer, and the health penalty is reduces to 10-20% max health of the limb. Considering this kit is 1x3, taking up a huge amount of space, it's probably not worth using. It's just too large. Better this than nothing, though.
Car Medical Kit
The newb's first real medical solution. Available LL1 as a barter (2 Duct Tape) and available for Roubles after completing Therapist's second quest. Has a larger health pool than AI-2's (220, vs AI-2's 100), and removes bloodloss. Takes up a 1x2 slot, so requires to be placed in a tactical rig in order to be used effectively. Cheap and fairly efficient, takes a standard 4 seconds to use. Rendered effectively obsolete when the Salewa is unlocked.
Often kept in a player's secure container as a backup health pool, before IFAKs are unlocked.
Salewa
Good medkit for use in mid and end-game. Contains 400 total health and can remove bloodloss. More rouble efficient form of a healing due to its high health pool, costs 13k roubles. Same size as the Car medical kit, so requires a tactical rig to use effectively. Because Tarkov does not currently have effects like Toxication in the game at the moment, this kit is favored by most players who go into a raid with at least a moderate level of gear. With a high health pool and relatively low cost, it's also a more efficient way of healing damage sustained while in raids. Unlocked at Therapist Level II after completing a level 10 Prapor quest, Postman Pat Part II. Required as part of Therapist's first quest, Shortage. This makes Salewas very valuable early on in a wipe as it gatekeeps the rest of Therapist's quests, most of which occur on Customs early on. Can be crafted in your meds station with a painkiller, splint, and bandage.
IFAK
Fantastic medical kit, and is the one preferred by most players. Features 300 health and the ability to remove bloodloss and a host of other negative effects that are not yet implemented into the game. It does not, however, remove fractures. Taking up only a single slot, it is favored by players in all stages of gear, and it is recommend to carry one in your Secure Container in case of emergencies. Is available at Therapist Level II for a barter (Sugar + Sodium), and may be purchased for Roubles at Level III after completing Healthcare Privacy, Part I. It is a fairly expensive kit, but due to its durability, its small size, and ability to remove bloodloss, it is a very common medical item used by players of all levels. Can be crafted in Lvl 2 medstation.
Grizzly
The 'big daddy' medical kit, boasting an impressive total health resource of 1800. It is also a very large kit, taking up 4 slots (2x2) - in order to be able to use this quickly, it would require specialized tactical rigs that feature a 2x2 slot. It removes all negative effects (some costing HP resource), including fractures. Used by highly-geared players who intend on staying in raids for an extended period of time, or by players with additional Secure Container space available in case of emergencies. It is available for barter at Therapist Level II, and purchase at Therapist Level 4. Due to its price point from Therapist at just under 23k Roubles and its healthpool of 1800, it is by far the most efficient method of healing from raid damage, at a 1.3 roubles per health, dramatically lower than other options available. Can be crafted in Lvl 3 medstation.

Pain Management

Using any of these items results in your character being 'On Painkillers' which allows you to sprint on fractured and blacked legs, as well as reducing effects of fractures and blacked limbs, and removing the debuff Pain. Essentially, the only difference between most of these items are the speed of use, price, availability, and duration of the effect. Note that the Hideout has changed how some of these items are used, and because Tarkov is under constant development, it is very likely that these materials may be used to create higher-grade medkits or to upgrade your medstation. That being the case, it's best to hoard the unknown items for now as efficiently as possible until you know you don't need them.
Analgin Painkillers
The holy grail of pain medication. "Painkillers" have 4 total uses. The total duration is greater than Morphine and less risk of waste. Takes a short time to use, and is available from Therapist Level 1 for both barter and Roubles. Makes a loud, distinctive gulping noise. Can be used to craft Salewa kits.
Morphine
Quick application of painkillers. Favored by some highly geared players as it has greater usability in combat then it's typical counterpart, Painkillers. Has a longer duration, but only one use. It is required for a fairly early Therapist (and a late Peacekeeper) Quest, so it is recommend to hoard 10 of them, then sell the rest unless you intend on using them. They are worth a good amount to Therapist and take up little space so they are a valuable loot item. Available from Therapist for Roubles at Level 4, after completing Healthcare Privacy, Part 3.
Augmentin
Basically a cheaper Morphine. One use, 205s. Not recommended over Painkillers due to its cost. No current barter for this item, so usually it's just a fairly expensive, small loot item. Most likely a component of a medstation manufacturing process or upgrade. Keep it.
Ibuprofen
Powerful painkiller. Lasts 500 seconds and has 12 uses. This item is recommended as your long-term solution for painkillers. While it is valuable because it's used to trade for THICC items case, it's the cheapest component and is very useful as a painkiller. It has a long duration and a large amount of uses, so keep it in your container for use as a painkiller if your primary painkillers wear off. Don't use it completely up, though. Keep the 1/12 bottles for the trade.
Vaseline
Powerful medical item. Cannot be purchased from dealers. Has a maximum of 10 uses. Removes Pain, applies Painkillers for 500 seconds (8.3 minutes). Useful to keep in your container as an alternative to Painkillers, though it takes 6 seconds to use, which is longer than other painkillers. Used as part of a barter trade for the Medcase.
Golden Star Balm
Fairly useful medical item. It can remove Pain and Contusion (not a big deal of a debuff, goes away on its own shortly) and provides a small bonus to hydration and energy. It also removes toxication and Radiation exposure, both of which are not yet implemented into the game. Like Vaseline, has a maximum of 10 uses. Painkiller effect lasts for 10 minutes, and takes 7 seconds to apply. Recommended to take only if you are going on large maps and you have extra room in your container. Can be used with Ibuprofen and 5x Med parts to craft 7 Propital.

Continued below in a series of comments, due to character limit.

submitted by dumnem to EscapefromTarkov [link] [comments]

[uncensored-r/Bitcoin] /r/Bitcoin FAQ - Newcomers please read

The following post by BinaryResult is being replicated because some comments within the post(but not the post itself) have been silently removed.
The original post can be found(in censored form) at this link:
reddit: /Bitcoin/comments/6jlop4
The original post's content was as follows:

Welcome to the /Bitcoin Sticky FAQ

You've probably been hearing a lot about Bitcoin recently and are wondering what's the big deal? Most of your questions should be answered by the resources below but if you have additional questions feel free to ask them in the comments.
The following videos are a good starting point for understanding how bitcoin works and a little about its long term potential:
For lots of additional video resources check out the videos wiki page or /BitcoinTV.
Key properties of bitcoin
  • Limited Supply - There will only ever be 21,000,000 bitcoins created and they are issued in a predictable fashion, you can view the inflation schedule here. Once they are all issued Bitcoin will be truly deflationary.
  • Open source - Bitcoin code is fully auditable. You can read the source code yourself here.
  • Accountable - The public ledger is transparent, all transactions are seen by everyone.
  • Decentralized - Bitcoin is globally distributed across thousands of nodes with no single point of failure and as such can't be shut down similar to how Bittorrent works.
  • Censorship resistant - No one can prevent you from interacting with the bitcoin network and no one can censor, alter or block transactions that they disagree with, see Operation Chokepoint.
  • Push system - There are no chargebacks in bitcoin because only the person who owns the address where the bitcoins reside has the authority to move them.
  • Low fee - Transactions fees can vary between a few cents and a few dollars depending on network demand and how much priority you wish to assign to the transaction. Most wallets calculate the fee automatically but you can view current fees here.
  • Borderless - No country can stop it from going in/out, even in areas currently unserved by traditional banking as the ledger is globally distributed.
  • Trustless - Bitcoin solved the Byzantine's Generals Problem which means nobody needs to trust anybody for it to work.
  • Pseudonymous - No need to expose personal information when purchasing with cash or transacting.
  • Secure - Encrypted cryptographically and can’t be brute forced or confiscated with proper key management such as hardware wallets.
  • Programmable - Individual units of bitcoin can be programmed to transfer based on certain criteria being met
  • Nearly instant - From a few seconds to a few minutes depending on need for confirmations. After a few confirmations transactions are irreversible.
  • Peer-to-peer - No intermediaries with a cut, no need for trusted third parties.
  • Portable - Bitcoins are digital so they are easier to move than cash or gold. They can even be transported by simply remembering a string of words for wallet recovery.
  • Scalable - Each bitcoin is divisible down to 8 decimals allowing it to grow in value while still accommodating micro-transactions.
  • Designed Money - Bitcoin was created to fit all the fundamental properties of money better than gold or fiat
Some excellent writing on Bitcoin's value proposition and future can be found here. Bitcoin statistics can be found here, here and here. Developer resources can be found here and here. Peer-reviewed research papers can be found here. The number of times Bitcoin was declared dead by the media can be found here. Scaling resources here, and of course the whitepaper that started it all.

Where can I buy bitcoins?

BuyBitcoinWorldwide.com and Howtobuybitcoin.io are helpful sites for beginners. You can buy or sell any amount of bitcoin and there are several easy methods to purchase bitcoin with cash, credit card or bank transfer. Some of the more popular resources are below, also, check out the bitcoinity exchange resources for a larger list of options for purchases.
Bank Transfer Credit / Debit card Cash
Coinbase Coinbase LocalBitcoins
Gemini Bitstamp LibertyX
GDAX Bitit Mycelium LocalTrader
Bitstamp Cex.io BitQuick
Kraken CoinMama WallofCoins
Xapo BitcoinOTC
Cex.io
itBit
Bitit
Bitsquare
Here is a listing of local ATMs. If you would like your paycheck automatically converted to bitcoin use Cashila or Bitwage.
Note: Bitcoins are valued at whatever market price people are willing to pay for them in balancing act of supply vs demand. Unlike traditional markets, bitcoin markets operate 24 hours per day, 365 days per year. Preev is a useful site that that shows how much various denominations of bitcoin are worth in different currencies. Alternatively you can just Google "1 bitcoin in (your local currency)".

Securing your bitcoins

With bitcoin you can "Be your own bank" and personally secure your bitcoins OR you can use third party companies aka "Bitcoin banks" which will hold the bitcoins for you.
  • If you prefer to "Be your own bank" and have direct control over your coins without having to use a trusted third party, there are many software wallet options here. If you want easy and secure storage without having to learn computer security best practices, then a hardware wallet such as the Trezor or Ledger is recommended. A more advanced option is to secure them yourself using paper wallets generated offline. Some popular mobile and desktop options are listed below and most are cross platform.
Android iOs Desktop
Mycelium BreadWallet Electrum
CoPay AirBitz Armory
  • If you prefer to let third party "Bitcoin banks" manage your coins, try Coinbase or Xapo but be aware you may not be in control of your private keys in which case you would have to ask permission to access your funds and be exposed to third party risk.
Another interesting use case for physical storage/transfer is the Opendime. Opendime is a small USB stick that allows you to spend Bitcoin by physically passing it along so it's anonymous and tangible like cash.
Note: For increased security, use Two Factor Authentication (2FA) everywhere it is offered, including email!
2FA requires a second confirmation code to access your account, usually from a text message or app, making it much harder for thieves to gain access. Google Authenticator and Authy are the two most popular 2FA services, download links are below. Make sure you create backups of your 2FA codes.
Google Auth Authy
Android Android
iOS iOS

Where can I spend bitcoins?

A more comprehensive list can be found at the Trade FAQ but some more commons ones are below.
Store Product
Gyft Gift cards for hundreds of retailers including Amazon, Target, Walmart, Starbucks, Whole Foods, CVS, Lowes, Home Depot, iTunes, Best Buy, Sears, Kohls, eBay, GameStop, etc.
Steam, HumbleBundle, Games Planet, itch.io, g2g and kinguin For when you need to get your game on
Microsoft Xbox games, phone apps and software
Spendabit, The Bitcoin Shop, Overstock, Rakuten, DuoSearch, The Bitcoin Directory and BazaarBay Retail shopping with millions of results
ShakePay Generate one time use Visa cards in seconds
NewEgg, TigerDirect and Dell For all your electronics needs
Cashila, Bitwa.la, Coinbills, Piixpay, Bitbill.eu, Bylls, Coins.ph, Bitrefill, Pey.de, LivingRoomofSatoshi, Hyphen.to, Coinsfer, GetPaidinBitcoin, Coins.co.th, More #1, #2 Bill payment
Foodler, Menufy, Takeaway, Thuisbezorgd NL, Pizza For Coins Takeout delivered to your door!
Expedia, Cheapair, Lot, Destinia, BTCTrip, Abitsky, SkyTours, Fluege the Travel category on Gyft and 9flats For when you need to get away
BoltVM, BitHost VPS service
Cryptostorm, Mullvad, and PIA VPN services
Namecheap For new domain name registration
Stampnik and GetUSPS Discounted USPS Priority, Express, First-Class mail postage
Reddit Gold Premium membership which can be gifted to others
Coinmap, 99Bitcoins and AirBitz are helpful to find local businesses accepting bitcoins. A good resource for UK residents is at wheretospendbitcoins.co.uk.
There are also lots of charities which accept bitcoin donations, such as Wikipedia, Red Cross, Amnesty International, United Way, ACLU and the EFF. You can find a longer list here.

Merchant Resources

There are several benefits to accepting bitcoin as a payment option if you are a merchant;
  • 1-3% savings over credit cards or PayPal.
  • No chargebacks (final settlement in 10 minutes as opposed to 3+ months).
  • Accept business from a global customer base.
  • Increased privacy.
  • Convert 100% of the sale to the currency of your choice for deposit to your account, or choose to keep a percentage of the sale in bitcoin if you wish to begin accumulating it.
If you are interested in accepting bitcoin as a payment method, there are several options available;

Can I mine bitcoin?

Mining bitcoins can be a fun learning experience, but be aware that you will most likely operate at a loss. Newcomers are often advised to stay away from mining unless they are only interested in it as a hobby similar to folding at home. If you want to learn more about mining you can read more here. Still have mining questions? The crew at /BitcoinMining would be happy to help you out.
If you want to contribute to the bitcoin network by hosting the blockchain and propagating transactions you can run a full node using this setup guide. Bitseed is an easy option for getting set up. You can view the global node distribution here.

Earning bitcoins

Just like any other form of money, you can also earn bitcoins by being paid to do a job.
Site Description
WorkingForBitcoins, Bitwage, XBTfreelancer, Cryptogrind, Bitlancerr, Coinality, Bitgigs, /Jobs4Bitcoins, Rein Project Freelancing
OpenBazaar, Purse.io, Bitify, /Bitmarket, 21 Market Marketplaces
Watchmybit, Streamium.io, OTika.tv, XOtika.tv NSFW, /GirlsGoneBitcoin NSFW Video Streaming
Bitasker, BitforTip, WillPayCoin Tasks
Supload.com, SatoshiBox, JoyStream, File Army File/Image Sharing
CoinAd, A-ads, Coinzilla.io Advertising
You can also earn bitcoins by participating as a market maker on JoinMarket by allowing users to perform CoinJoin transactions with your bitcoins for a small fee (requires you to already have some bitcoins)

Bitcoin Projects

The following is a short list of ongoing projects that might be worth taking a look at if you are interested in current development in the bitcoin space.
Project Description
Lightning Network, Amiko Pay, and Strawpay Payment channels for network scaling
Blockstream and Drivechain Sidechains
21, Inc. Open source library for the machine payable web
ShapeShift.io Trade between bitcoins and altcoins easily
Open Transactions, Counterparty, Omni, Open Assets, Symbiont and Chain Financial asset platforms
Hivemind and Augur Prediction markets
Mirror Smart contracts
Mediachain Decentralized media library
Tierion and Factom Records & Titles on the blockchain
BitMarkets, DropZone, Beaver and Open Bazaar Decentralized markets
Samourai and Dark Wallet - abandoned Privacy-enhancing wallets
JoinMarket CoinJoin implementation (Increase privacy and/or Earn interest on bitcoin holdings)
Coinffeine and Bitsquare Decentralized bitcoin exchanges
Keybase and Bitrated Identity & Reputation management
Bitmesh and Telehash Mesh networking
JoyStream BitTorrent client with paid seeding
MORPHiS Decentralized, encrypted internet
Storj and Sia Decentralized file storage
Streamium and Faradam Pay in real time for on-demand services
Abra Global P2P money transmitter network
bitSIM PIN secure hardware token between SIM & Phone
Identifi Decentralized address book w/ ratings system
Coinometrics Institutional-level Bitcoin Data & Research
Blocktrail and BitGo Multisig bitcoin API
Bitcore Open source Bitcoin javascript library
Insight Open source blockchain API
Leet Kill your friends and take their money ;)

Bitcoin Units

One Bitcoin is quite large (hundreds of £/$/€) so people often deal in smaller units. The most common subunits are listed below:
Unit Symbol Value Info
millibitcoin mBTC 1,000 per bitcoin SI unit for milli i.e. millilitre (mL) or millimetre (mm)
microbitcoin ?BTC 1,000,000 per bitcoin SI unit for micro i.e microlitre (?L) or micrometre (?m)
bit bit 1,000,000 per bitcoin Colloquial "slang" term for microbitcoin
satoshi sat 100,000,000 per bitcoin Smallest unit in bitcoin, named after the inventor
For example, assuming an arbitrary exchange rate of $500 for one Bitcoin, a $10 meal would equal:
  • 0.02 BTC
  • 20 mBTC
  • 20,000 bits
For more information check out the Bitcoin units wiki.
Still have questions? Feel free to ask in the comments below or stick around for our weekly Mentor Monday thread. If you decide to post a question in /Bitcoin, please use the search bar to see if it has been answered before, and remember to follow the community rules outlined on the sidebar to receive a better response. The mods are busy helping manage our community so please do not message them unless you notice problems with the functionality of the subreddit. A complete list of bitcoin related subreddits can be found here
Note: This is a community created FAQ. If you notice anything missing from the FAQ or that requires clarification you can edit it here and it will be included in the next revision pending approval.
Welcome to the Bitcoin community and the new decentralized economy!
submitted by censorship_notifier to noncensored_bitcoin [link] [comments]

Copy Buffett Software Review - Sign in & Download!

"Copy Buffett Review"-CopyBuffett.com Sign in & Download. Is it recommended to Copy Warren Buffett's Trading Strategy? Can anyone emulate his success using Copy Buffett Software? Will this software work for both beginners Binary Trader & Pros? Read This!! learn the real truth about Copy Warren Buffet System!!
Copy Buffett Software
.
.
Product Description:
Product complete : "Copy Buffett"
Niche: Binary Option
Official website : Copy Buffett Official Website
Bonus offer : First 70
**whos is Warren Buffet?
.
.
Warren Buffett, commonly called the Oracle of Omaha, is one of the most successful investors in history. Buffett’s investments are made primarily through Berkshire Hathaway Inc. A recent study by two professors should confirm that Buffett is one heck of an investor -- possibly the greatest of all time. It showed that merely mimicking Buffett's purchases after he made them delivered almost twice the return of the S&P 500 Index during the past three decades. According to Profs. Gerald Martin and John Puthenpurackal's study, "Imitation Is the Sincerest Form of Flattery," investors would have earned an average annual return of 24.6% for 30 years, simply by buying what Buffett bought.
. What is Copy Buffett Software? .
Copy Buffett is a binary options trading software that will give you the best currency pairs to trade and in what direction the option will move so you can head over to your options broker, pick the currency pair that the Copy Buffett software suggested, the amount you want to trade, and select the direction and click trade.
-Within 15 seconds you setup your first trade based on the Copy Buffett software.
-Making a Trade with Copy Buffett Software: Find a currency pair in the software (British pound/yen or whatever)
-Take note of direction the software suggests
-Head over to suggested your options broker
-Choose your length of time to invest (short term or long)
-Choose your level of investment ($25 min)
-Choose the direction the software suggested
-Within 15 seconds you can run through these 7 steps and setup your first successful binary options trade
.
.
==> Click here to Get Started With Copy Buffett Now & Claim Bonus $300
.
.
Copy Buffett Review:
I have done a huge research about this binary options tool, believe me, I just have to check all the info before I start any type of business. What I have found out is that this is incredible, binary options trading tool that has a really high performance. When I thought about getting 75% of profit without it taking too much time, I just knew I had to try it out, especially when it is free right now.
While it is nearly impossible for any binary options software to deliver a 100% success ratio, but Copy Buffett is proving itself to be the most resourceful among all other systems available right beside this one. The extensive bets testing which had been done before it was actually made public has finally paid off and has made it rise as the top most binary options trading software. It is highly recommendable software to people as with 80% accuracy they get to bring in close to 185% of their cost daily. The availability of a dedicated support team also plays a vital role in helping the users in case of any dubiety. All plus points combined in one sends a pretty positive message to everyone in need of a perfect binary options trading software.
Copy Buffett Is It a Scam?
Actually, it’s impossible for it to be a scam. You’re literally signing up to watch a pro trade. You get to see him instantly, in real time, each day making trades, winning and losing (and winning much more than losing). The results speak for themselves. He’s also helpful and teaches you along the way. I’m so impressed by this system because there is no doubt it is real. They don’t need to hype it up or make outrageous claims.
.
==> Click here to Get Started With Copy Buffett Now & Claim Bonus $300
.
How Does It Work?IS Copy Buffett Real Or Not Real?
Copy Buffett is easy to use and has several revolutionary features. The first thing to do is to open a brokerage account and connect it with the software. Then you are ready to receive signals and start trading.
You can choose from all popular currency pairs and trade at any time of the day – no matter which timezone you live in. The software works with any computer and also with most mobile devices like tablets and smart phones. You get your own trading rep, who will help you get started.
A Few Things To Know…
If you want to make profitable trades throughout the day you need to understand the difference between short term trades and long term trades.
(Short Term Trades) – Short term ranges from 60 seconds to 5 minutes. Short term trades are less risky but are also less profitable. This is because the option has less time to move for or against you.
(Long Term Trades) – This is where the big money is made but keep in mind long term trades are more steady because they have longer averages and this is where you can make huge profits.
The Bottom Line
Copy Buffett is definitely the most advance auto-trading software that we have ever come across with. We have tested other similar program in the past, but this one has to be the best. Everyone wants to buy like Buffett, but few have been able to mimic his success. Buffett himself suggests small investors to follow Buffett’s guidelines and His Software signals you will be on track to earn solid returns on your portfolio.
Go ahead & Download your free coopy of Buffet Software and put it to the test so that you can see for yourself why it’s the best binary options signals software 2016 .
.
. ►►► ==>Click here to JOIN Copy Buffett Investor Club
.
Tags:Copy Buffett , Copy Buffett reviews, Copy Buffett software review, Copy Buffett scam, Copy Buffett software, Copy Buffett download, Copy Buffett login, Copy Buffett website, Copy Buffett system, Copy Buffett malware, Copy Buffett pro, Copy Buffett contactCopy Buffett tutorial, Copy Buffett results, Copy Buffett forum, Copy Buffett a scamCopy Buffett brokers, Copy Buffett bonus, Copy Buffett review, Copy Buffett software https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cash_Generator "Copy Warren buffet Buffett"
submitted by hazeldrew87 to CopyBuffet [link] [comments]

ALTRONIX APP REVIEW - What Altronix App* Is All About?

Altronix App Review - Read This!!** "Altronix App" System Review! Altronix App Review, Looking For "Altronix App" System Review and haven't found one yet which tells you the honest truth? Don't worry, because I'm going to save your time and tell you what is Altronix App software and how Altronix App system works to make you money online. - Get The Truth!
Altronix App Review
.
.
Product Description:
Product complete : "Altronix App"
Niche: Binary Option
Official website : Altronix App Official Website
Money-back Promise : Yes
Bonus offer : First 70
What is Altronix App Software?
.
.
Altronix App is a binary options trading software that will give you the best currency pairs to trade and in what direction the option will move so you can head over to your options broker, pick the currency pair that the Altronix App software suggested, the amount you want to trade, and select the direction and click trade.
Within 15 seconds you setup your first trade based on the Altronix App software.
Making a Trade with Altronix App Software: Find a currency pair in the software (British pound/yen or whatever)
Take note of direction the software suggests
Head over to suggested your options broker
Choose your length of time to invest (short term or long)
Choose your level of investment ($25 min)
Choose the direction the software suggested
Within 15 seconds you can run through these 7 steps and setup your first successful binary options trade
.
.
==> Click here to Get Started With Altronix App Now & Claim Bonus $300
.
.
Altronix App Review:
I have done a huge research about this binary options tool, believe me, I just have to check all the info before I start any type of business. What I have found out is that this is incredible, binary options trading tool that has a really high performance. When I thought about getting 75% of profit without it taking too much time, I just knew I had to try it out, especially when it is free right now.
While it is nearly impossible for any binary options software to deliver a 100% success ratio, but Altronix App is proving itself to be the most resourceful among all other systems available right beside this one. The extensive bets testing which had been done before it was actually made public has finally paid off and has made it rise as the top most binary options trading software. It is highly recommendable software to people as with 80% accuracy they get to bring in close to 185% of their cost daily. The availability of a dedicated support team also plays a vital role in helping the users in case of any dubiety. All plus points combined in one sends a pretty positive message to everyone in need of a perfect binary options trading software.
Altronix App Is It a Scam?
Actually, it’s impossible for it to be a scam. You’re literally signing up to watch a pro trade. You get to see him instantly, in real time, each day making trades, winning and losing (and winning much more than losing). The results speak for themselves. He’s also helpful and teaches you along the way. I’m so impressed by this system because there is no doubt it is real. They don’t need to hype it up or make outrageous claims.
.
==> Click here to Get Started With Altronix App Now & Claim Bonus $300
.
How Does It Work?IS Altronix App Real Or Not Real?
Altronix App is easy to use and has several revolutionary features. The first thing to do is to open a brokerage account and connect it with the software. Then you are ready to receive signals and start trading.
You can choose from all popular currency pairs and trade at any time of the day – no matter which timezone you live in. The software works with any computer and also with most mobile devices like tablets and smart phones. You get your own trading rep, who will help you get started.
A Few Things To Know…
If you want to make profitable trades throughout the day you need to understand the difference between short term trades and long term trades.
(Short Term Trades) – Short term ranges from 60 seconds to 5 minutes. Short term trades are less risky but are also less profitable. This is because the option has less time to move for or against you.
(Long Term Trades) – This is where the big money is made but keep in mind long term trades are more steady because they have longer averages and this is where you can make huge profits.
Verdict!
Altronix App is definitely the most advance auto-trading software that we have ever come across with. We have tested other similar program in the past, but this one has to be the best. Even though we tried really hard to find a con, we simply just weren’t able to find any; therefore, is the Altronix App Software a scam? The answer is ‘no.’ Due to our Altronix App review, we can conclude that it is not a loophole, anomaly, a glitch or a gimmick that could close at any time soon. From what we experienced, with Altronix App Software, you can earn about $89,000 every year, starting from scratch with no big investment sum required. Go ahead and try Altronix App and put it to the test so that you can see for yourself why it’s the best binary options signals software 2016
.
. ►►► ==>Click here to JOIN Altronix App Investor Club
.
Tags:Altronix App , Altronix App reviews, Altronix App software review, Altronix App scam, Altronix App software, Altronix App download, Altronix App login, Altronix App website, Altronix App system, Altronix App malware, Altronix App pro, Altronix App contactAltronix App tutorial, Altronix App results, Altronix App forum, Altronix App a scamAltronix App brokers, Altronix App bonus, Altronix App review, Altronix App software https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cash_Generator "Altronix App"
submitted by hazeldrew87 to altronix [link] [comments]

"COPY BUFFETT REVIEW" - *Beat The Pro *Trader Using Warren Buffett Software!

"COPY BUFFETT REVIEW" - Beat The Pro *Trader Using Warren Buffett Software! -Is it Wise to Copy Warren Buffett's Investment Strategy? Can we emulate his success using Copy Buffett Software? Will this software worls for both newbs Binary Trader & Pros? Read This!!* "Copy Buffett" Software Review to learn the real truth about Copy Warren Buffet System!!
Copy Buffett Review
.
.
Product Description:
Product complete : "Copy Buffett"
Niche: Binary Option
Official website : Copy Buffett Official Website
Money-back Promise : Yes
Bonus offer : First 70
**whos is Warren Buffet?
What is Copy Buffett Software?
.
.
Warren Buffett, commonly called the Oracle of Omaha, is one of the most successful investors in history. Buffett’s investments are made primarily through Berkshire Hathaway Inc. A recent study by two professors should confirm that Buffett is one heck of an investor -- possibly the greatest of all time. It showed that merely mimicking Buffett's purchases after he made them delivered almost twice the return of the S&P 500 Index during the past three decades. According to Profs. Gerald Martin and John Puthenpurackal's study, "Imitation Is the Sincerest Form of Flattery," investors would have earned an average annual return of 24.6% for 30 years, simply by buying what Buffett bought.
.
.
Copy Buffett is a binary options trading software that will give you the best currency pairs to trade and in what direction the option will move so you can head over to your options broker, pick the currency pair that the Copy Buffett software suggested, the amount you want to trade, and select the direction and click trade.
Within 15 seconds you setup your first trade based on the Copy Buffett software.
Making a Trade with Copy Buffett Software: Find a currency pair in the software (British pound/yen or whatever)
Take note of direction the software suggests
Head over to suggested your options broker
Choose your length of time to invest (short term or long)
Choose your level of investment ($25 min)
Choose the direction the software suggested
Within 15 seconds you can run through these 7 steps and setup your first successful binary options trade
.
.
==> Click here to Get Started With Copy Buffett Now & Claim Bonus $300
.
.
Copy Buffett Review:
I have done a huge research about this binary options tool, believe me, I just have to check all the info before I start any type of business. What I have found out is that this is incredible, binary options trading tool that has a really high performance. When I thought about getting 75% of profit without it taking too much time, I just knew I had to try it out, especially when it is free right now.
While it is nearly impossible for any binary options software to deliver a 100% success ratio, but Copy Buffett is proving itself to be the most resourceful among all other systems available right beside this one. The extensive bets testing which had been done before it was actually made public has finally paid off and has made it rise as the top most binary options trading software. It is highly recommendable software to people as with 80% accuracy they get to bring in close to 185% of their cost daily. The availability of a dedicated support team also plays a vital role in helping the users in case of any dubiety. All plus points combined in one sends a pretty positive message to everyone in need of a perfect binary options trading software.
Copy Buffett Is It a Scam?
Actually, it’s impossible for it to be a scam. You’re literally signing up to watch a pro trade. You get to see him instantly, in real time, each day making trades, winning and losing (and winning much more than losing). The results speak for themselves. He’s also helpful and teaches you along the way. I’m so impressed by this system because there is no doubt it is real. They don’t need to hype it up or make outrageous claims.
.
==> Click here to Get Started With Copy Buffett Now & Claim Bonus $300
.
How Does It Work?IS Copy Buffett Real Or Not Real?
Copy Buffett is easy to use and has several revolutionary features. The first thing to do is to open a brokerage account and connect it with the software. Then you are ready to receive signals and start trading.
You can choose from all popular currency pairs and trade at any time of the day – no matter which timezone you live in. The software works with any computer and also with most mobile devices like tablets and smart phones. You get your own trading rep, who will help you get started.
A Few Things To Know…
If you want to make profitable trades throughout the day you need to understand the difference between short term trades and long term trades.
(Short Term Trades) – Short term ranges from 60 seconds to 5 minutes. Short term trades are less risky but are also less profitable. This is because the option has less time to move for or against you.
(Long Term Trades) – This is where the big money is made but keep in mind long term trades are more steady because they have longer averages and this is where you can make huge profits.
The Bottom Line
Copy Buffett is definitely the most advance auto-trading software that we have ever come across with. We have tested other similar program in the past, but this one has to be the best. Everyone wants to buy like Buffett, but few have been able to mimic his success. Buffett himself suggests small investors to follow Buffett’s guidelines and His Software signals you will be on track to earn solid returns on your portfolio.
Go ahead & Download your free coopy of Buffet Software and put it to the test so that you can see for yourself why it’s the best binary options signals software 2016 .
.
. ►►► ==>Click here to JOIN Copy Buffett Investor Club
.
Tags:Copy Buffett , Copy Buffett reviews, Copy Buffett software review, Copy Buffett scam, Copy Buffett software, Copy Buffett download, Copy Buffett login, Copy Buffett website, Copy Buffett system, Copy Buffett malware, Copy Buffett pro, Copy Buffett contactCopy Buffett tutorial, Copy Buffett results, Copy Buffett forum, Copy Buffett a scamCopy Buffett brokers, Copy Buffett bonus, Copy Buffett review, Copy Buffett software https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cash_Generator "Copy Warren buffet Buffett"
submitted by hazeldrew87 to CopyBuffet [link] [comments]

Alpha Money Generator Review - Is "Alpha Money Generator" System Scam?

Alpha Money Generator Review - Read This!!** "Alpha Money Generator" System Review! Alpha Money Generator Review, Looking For "Alpha Money Generator" System Review and haven't found one yet which tells you the honest truth? Don't worry, because I'm going to save your time and tell you what is Alpha Money Generator software and how Alpha Money Generator system works to make you money online. - Get The Truth!
Alpha Money Generator Are you looking for Alpha Money Generator Review and haven’t found one yet which tells you the honest truth? Don’t worry, because I’m going to save your time and tell you what is Alpha Money Generator software by Quincy and how Alpha Money Generator system works to make you money online. – Get The Truth!
.
.
Product Description:
Product complete : "Alpha Money Generator"
Niche: Binary Option
Product Creator: Jhon Becker
Official website : *Alpha Money Generator Official Website *
Money-back Promise : Yes
Bonus offer : First 70
What is Alpha Money Generator Software?
.
.
Alpha Money Generator is a binary options trading software that will give you the best currency pairs to trade and in what direction the option will move so you can head over to your options broker, pick the currency pair that the Alpha Money Generator software suggested, the amount you want to trade, and select the direction and click trade.
Within 15 seconds you setup your first trade based on the Alpha Money Generator software.
Making a Trade with Alpha Money Generator Software: Find a currency pair in the software (British pound/yen or whatever)
Take note of direction the software suggests
Head over to suggested your options broker
Choose your length of time to invest (short term or long)
Choose your level of investment ($25 min)
Choose the direction the software suggested
Within 15 seconds you can run through these 7 steps and setup your first successful binary options trade
.
.
==> Click here to Get Started With Alpha Money Generator Now & Claim Bonus $300
.
.
Alpha Money Generator Review:
I have done a huge research about this binary options tool, believe me, I just have to check all the info before I start any type of business. What I have found out is that this is incredible, binary options trading tool that has a really high performance. When I thought about getting 75% of profit without it taking too much time, I just knew I had to try it out, especially when it is free right now.
While it is nearly impossible for any binary options software to deliver a 100% success ratio, but Alpha Money Generator is proving itself to be the most resourceful among all other systems available right beside this one. The extensive bets testing which had been done before it was actually made public has finally paid off and has made it rise as the top most binary options trading software. It is highly recommendable software to people as with 80% accuracy they get to bring in close to 185% of their cost daily. The availability of a dedicated support team also plays a vital role in helping the users in case of any dubiety. All plus points combined in one sends a pretty positive message to everyone in need of a perfect binary options trading software.
Alpha Money Generator Is It a Scam?
Actually, it’s impossible for it to be a scam. You’re literally signing up to watch a pro trade. You get to see him instantly, in real time, each day making trades, winning and losing (and winning much more than losing). The results speak for themselves. He’s also helpful and teaches you along the way. I’m so impressed by this system because there is no doubt it is real. They don’t need to hype it up or make outrageous claims.
.
==> Click here to Get Started With Alpha Money Generator Now & Claim Bonus $300
.
How Does It Work?IS Alpha Money Generator Real Or Not Real?
Alpha Money Generator is easy to use and has several revolutionary features. The first thing to do is to open a brokerage account and connect it with the software. Then you are ready to receive signals and start trading.
You can choose from all popular currency pairs and trade at any time of the day – no matter which timezone you live in. The software works with any computer and also with most mobile devices like tablets and smart phones. You get your own trading rep, who will help you get started.
A Few Things To Know…
If you want to make profitable trades throughout the day you need to understand the difference between short term trades and long term trades.
(Short Term Trades) – Short term ranges from 60 seconds to 5 minutes. Short term trades are less risky but are also less profitable. This is because the option has less time to move for or against you.
(Long Term Trades) – This is where the big money is made but keep in mind long term trades are more steady because they have longer averages and this is where you can make huge profits.
Verdict!
Alpha Money Generator is definitely the most advance auto-trading software that we have ever come across with. We have tested other similar program in the past, but this one has to be the best. Even though we tried really hard to find a con, we simply just weren’t able to find any; therefore, is the Alpha Money Generator Software a scam? The answer is ‘no.’ Due to our Alpha Money Generator review, we can conclude that it is not a loophole, anomaly, a glitch or a gimmick that could close at any time soon. From what we experienced, with Alpha Money Generator Software, you can earn about $89,000 every year, starting from scratch with no big investment sum required. Go ahead and try Alpha Money Generator and put it to the test so that you can see for yourself why it’s the best binary options signals software 2016
.
. ►►► ==>Click here to JOIN Alpha Money Generator Investor Club
.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cash_Generator "Alpha Money Generator" Tags:Alpha Money Generator Circle, Alpha Money Generator Circle reviews, Alpha Money Generator Circle software review, Alpha Money Generator Circle scam, Alpha Money Generator Circle software, Alpha Money Generator Circle download, Alpha Money Generator Circle login, Alpha Money Generator Circle website, Alpha Money Generator Circle system, Alpha Money Generator Circle malware, Alpha Money Generator Circle pro, Alpha Money Generator Circle contactAlpha Money Generator Circle tutorial, Alpha Money Generator Circle results, Alpha Money Generator Circle forum, Alpha Money Generator Circle a scamAlpha Money Generator Circle brokers, Alpha Money Generator Circle bonus, Alpha Money Generator Circle review, Alpha Money Generator Circle software
submitted by hazeldrew87 to goldtrade [link] [comments]

COPY BUFFET SOFTWARE REVIEW - *Copy Warren Buffet* & Beat The Pros!!

"Copy Buffett Review" -Is it Wise to Copy Warren Buffett's Investment Strategy? Can we emulate his success using Copy Buffett Software? Will this software worls for both newbs Binary Trader & Pros? Read This!!** "Copy Buffett" Software Review to learn the real truth about Copy Warren Buffet System!!
Copy Buffett Review
.
.
Product Description:
Product complete : "Copy Buffett"
Niche: Binary Option
Official website : Copy Buffett Official Website
Money-back Promise : Yes
Bonus offer : First 70
**whos is Warren Buffet?
What is Copy Buffett Software?
.
.
Warren Buffett, commonly called the Oracle of Omaha, is one of the most successful investors in history. Buffett’s investments are made primarily through Berkshire Hathaway Inc. A recent study by two professors should confirm that Buffett is one heck of an investor -- possibly the greatest of all time. It showed that merely mimicking Buffett's purchases after he made them delivered almost twice the return of the S&P 500 Index during the past three decades. According to Profs. Gerald Martin and John Puthenpurackal's study, "Imitation Is the Sincerest Form of Flattery," investors would have earned an average annual return of 24.6% for 30 years, simply by buying what Buffett bought.
.
.
Copy Buffett is a binary options trading software that will give you the best currency pairs to trade and in what direction the option will move so you can head over to your options broker, pick the currency pair that the Copy Buffett software suggested, the amount you want to trade, and select the direction and click trade.
Within 15 seconds you setup your first trade based on the Copy Buffett software.
Making a Trade with Copy Buffett Software: Find a currency pair in the software (British pound/yen or whatever)
Take note of direction the software suggests
Head over to suggested your options broker
Choose your length of time to invest (short term or long)
Choose your level of investment ($25 min)
Choose the direction the software suggested
Within 15 seconds you can run through these 7 steps and setup your first successful binary options trade
.
.
==> Click here to Get Started With Copy Buffett Now & Claim Bonus $300
.
.
Copy Buffett Review:
I have done a huge research about this binary options tool, believe me, I just have to check all the info before I start any type of business. What I have found out is that this is incredible, binary options trading tool that has a really high performance. When I thought about getting 75% of profit without it taking too much time, I just knew I had to try it out, especially when it is free right now.
While it is nearly impossible for any binary options software to deliver a 100% success ratio, but Copy Buffett is proving itself to be the most resourceful among all other systems available right beside this one. The extensive bets testing which had been done before it was actually made public has finally paid off and has made it rise as the top most binary options trading software. It is highly recommendable software to people as with 80% accuracy they get to bring in close to 185% of their cost daily. The availability of a dedicated support team also plays a vital role in helping the users in case of any dubiety. All plus points combined in one sends a pretty positive message to everyone in need of a perfect binary options trading software.
Copy Buffett Is It a Scam?
Actually, it’s impossible for it to be a scam. You’re literally signing up to watch a pro trade. You get to see him instantly, in real time, each day making trades, winning and losing (and winning much more than losing). The results speak for themselves. He’s also helpful and teaches you along the way. I’m so impressed by this system because there is no doubt it is real. They don’t need to hype it up or make outrageous claims.
.
==> Click here to Get Started With Copy Buffett Now & Claim Bonus $300
.
How Does It Work?IS Copy Buffett Real Or Not Real?
Copy Buffett is easy to use and has several revolutionary features. The first thing to do is to open a brokerage account and connect it with the software. Then you are ready to receive signals and start trading.
You can choose from all popular currency pairs and trade at any time of the day – no matter which timezone you live in. The software works with any computer and also with most mobile devices like tablets and smart phones. You get your own trading rep, who will help you get started.
A Few Things To Know…
If you want to make profitable trades throughout the day you need to understand the difference between short term trades and long term trades.
(Short Term Trades) – Short term ranges from 60 seconds to 5 minutes. Short term trades are less risky but are also less profitable. This is because the option has less time to move for or against you.
(Long Term Trades) – This is where the big money is made but keep in mind long term trades are more steady because they have longer averages and this is where you can make huge profits.
The Bottom Line
Copy Buffett is definitely the most advance auto-trading software that we have ever come across with. We have tested other similar program in the past, but this one has to be the best. Everyone wants to buy like Buffett, but few have been able to mimic his success. Buffett himself suggests small investors to follow Buffett’s guidelines and His Software signals you will be on track to earn solid returns on your portfolio.
Go ahead & Download your free coopy of Buffet Software and put it to the test so that you can see for yourself why it’s the best binary options signals software 2016 .
.
. ►►► ==>Click here to JOIN Copy Buffett Investor Club
.
Tags:Copy Buffett , Copy Buffett reviews, Copy Buffett software review, Copy Buffett scam, Copy Buffett software, Copy Buffett download, Copy Buffett login, Copy Buffett website, Copy Buffett system, Copy Buffett malware, Copy Buffett pro, Copy Buffett contactCopy Buffett tutorial, Copy Buffett results, Copy Buffett forum, Copy Buffett a scamCopy Buffett brokers, Copy Buffett bonus, Copy Buffett review, Copy Buffett software https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cash_Generator "Copy Warren buffet Buffett"
submitted by hazeldrew87 to CopyBuffet [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Origins - part 2

Afternoon, All.
This is a continuation from the previous reddit post:
Bitcoin Origins
The following are a few notes I've been making on the original development of the tech behind Bitcoin.
This is still in early draft form so expect the layout and flow to be cleaned up over time.
Also be aware that the initial release of the Bitcoin white paper and code was what we had cut down to from earlier ideas.
This means that some of the ideas below will not correspond to what would end up being made public.
As I'm paraphrasing dim memories some of the sections are out-of-order whereby some things occurred earlier rather than later. As I recall more I'll be updating this story elsewhere for uploading when it appears more substantial.
As noted on the first post ( link supplied above ):
There is no verification of truth here.
There is absolutely no evidential proof that I had any part in the project.
Take this as just a fictional story if you wish.
Bitcoin Logo
BitCoin Origins
Six Months In A Leaky Boat
continued ...
“You’re saying that we can use this proof-of-work thing to inject electronic cash into the network and have it tied to fiat currencies, but how would the network know what the local fiat currency is to figure out the correct fiat-currency-to-electronic-cash exchange rate ?”, (2) asked.
“Maybe we could have a server that keeps a record of what the various electricity companies charge and have the software get the values from there ?”, I suggested. “Some of these new mobile phones, the smart phones, the cellular network phones in folks pockets, have GPS chips incorporated into them, right ? And everyone has them or will be getting them as they become more popular. This means everyone will have a device on them which will allow the software to include a GPS location so that the network knows which exchange rate to use for that particular minted cash.
“But how will the network know that the GPS coordinates haven’t been changed and set to another location ?”, (2) asked. “Wouldn’t that mean relying on a trusted third party again ? I thought you said we have to get away from that ? If we cannot trust a single computer for minting cash into the network then maybe we shouldn’t trust any at all ?”
“Uhh… dunno,” I replied. “I’ll get back to that later”, I said.
“Ok, ” (2) said. “How are we going to have the transactions sent to other people on the network ? All the other white papers are expecting people to connect directly to one of the trusted computers to purchase the electronic cash and to transfer it to someone else through them. If we’re not going to use a trusted computer for this and will have the proof-of-work generate the cash, then how do people receive or pay the cash ? Also: How would the network trust that the cash is valid if no computer is being used for time-stamping and validating the cash ?”
I told him I’d have to think about it.
Multiple ideas were given and discarded. He consulted with (3) about every possible solution and every one was a failure.
They either resulted in having to rely on at least one server to hook everything together or would break if multiple transaction messages were sent at the same time to different computers.
After a week or so of this I’d finally burnt myself out and decided that it’s quite possible that everyone else was correct when they said that you couldn’t solve double-spending in a digital world without depending upon a trusted third party.
I stopped emailing (2) at that point, hoping it’d all go away.
After a week he emailed me asking if I’d come up with another solution for testing.
I told him that I don’t think there is a solution and maybe he should just use part of what he had in his original white paper and rely on a trusted third party like everyone else.
He said something along the lines of “Like [redacted] I will ! You’ve taken me down this path of not trusting a single computer and that’s what I want. No-one's done that before and if we break it, it will probably change everything ! ”
I told him I’m taking a break from it all for a while.
Another week passes and he emails me again.
He said, “How are you feeling ? Sorry to be so harsh on you but I really need this to work. I’ll leave you be if that’s what you want. Just let me know when you’re able to continue.”
Another week goes by and whenever I begin to think of the problem I just say to myself “To [redacted] with him and his electronic cash problem.”
For comfort I turn to perusing through some of my old Win32 Asm proggys (I called them “proggys” because I thought of them as small, incomplete computer programs - kind of like examples and tutorials).
I also begun reminiscing about the Amiga 500 days and the proggys I made back then (late 1980’s through to mid 1990’s).
Knowing that one of the most difficult issues with electronic cash revolved around the networking architecture and how data would be propagated by the networked computers I began going through some of the discussions I had back in 2005 and 2006 with someone who was attempting to make a tank game.
I explained to him the main difference between TCP and UDP ( Transmission Control Protocol User Datagram Protocol ).
If you need data packages to arrive in a particular order with confirmation that they’ve arrived then you’d use TCP.
If you need velocity of data packets you can throw all the protocol error checking out and use UDP.
That’s one of the reasons great online multi-player games uses UDP. It reduces the latency with the data being transmitted around the network.
The main difficulty is in building the gaming system in such a way so that the data the servers and clients transmit and receive work when data packets never arrive.
TCP guarantees delivery if the network is functioning while with UDP you do not know if a particular packet ever arrived or if packets arrived in a different order to transmission due to separate packets traversing the internet via different pathways.
Many online games were usually built for single-player first and the multi-player code would be chucked into the codebase near the end of development.
This would mean that all of the game code objects and classes were made to use known values at any particular time and could not work in a UDP environment without re-architecting the entire code base from scratch.
You’d find many of the games that also included multi-player gameplay options ended up using TCP for the network communications and this made all of these games slow over the network with high latency and unplayable lag as the gameplay would be faster than the network data packets telling your computer where your opponents are located.
The various tanks games around 2005 were built as above. I convinced this person to focus on the multi-player aspect of the game because he could always add in single-player later on.
Multiple players would have to drive and fire tanks around a field while being updated continuously about the complete state of the network.
This is usually accomplished by having a single server that receives all of the current data from all the player clients and dishes out the official game state back to all of those player clients so that everyone knows who went where, who fired at what and who has been hit.
However even with using UDP there is a bottleneck in the network with the server itself only being able to process a peak number of connections and data throughput every second. It could only scale so high.
We had talked about different ways to improve this by possibly having relay servers on some of the players computers or having a more peer-to-peer like structure so that each player client only had to get the latest data from its nearest neighbours in the network and only transmit to their peers so that a fully server-less multi-player game could be created.
How the data could be moved about without someone creating a hack that could change the data packages in their favour couldn’t be figured out.
In the end he went with using a central server with both TCP and UDP depending upon what data packages were needed to be sent - general gameplay data (tank movements) via UDP and server state (for confirming who hit what) via TCP.
If a peer-to-peer network was to be used for electronic cash then to be scalable the data packages must be able to be transmitted with as high a velocity as possible. It must work with the majority of transmissions using UDP.
If two-way communication is required then a return ip/port can be included within a UDP data package or a TCP connection could be used.
I had also read and reread this thing that has been going around the crypto community for ages called the Byzantine Generals Dilemma (or worded in a similar way).
It’s supposed to be impossible to solve and at least a couple of well-known academics and crypto folks had “proven” it was impossible to solve only a few years previously. They had pretty much staked their reputations on the fact that it was unsolvable.
I thought “Wouldn’t it be absolutely hilarious if the solution to this double-spending problem is also the solution to the impossible Byzantine Generals Dilemma and could be found using ideas from the Amiga days and 3D programming and uses multi-player gaming techniques ? That would annoy the [redacted] out of the crypto community and take those elitists down a peg or two !”
(This is where you’d see the screen go all watery-wavy as the scene morphs to a time in the past when I was a moderator of the Win32 Asm community)
The assembly community and the crypto community share a lot in common.
They’re made up of some of the most brilliant folks in the computing industry where huge egos do battle against one-another.
You’d also find folks in one community existing within the other.
Both communities are made up of both light and dark actors.
The light actors are those who are very public.
They are academics, researchers, security professionals, and so on.
The dark actors are … (and that’s all I’ll say about them).
Except to say that the light crypto actors are usually doing work to undo what the dark assembly actors are doing.
It’s one [redacted] of a game !
To have a message board that was able to accommodate all actors required a few tough rules and stiff execution of them if the forum was to continue to exist.
Many of the other assembly boards were being snuffed out by government actors forcing the hosting service to shut them down.
This was mainly due to the assembly forums insistence of allowing threads to exist which showed exactly how to break and crack various websites/ networks/ software/ etc.
Whenever one of these sites were shut down the members would disperse to the various remaining assembly boards.
So we received an influx of new members every few months whenever their previous venue went up in smoke.
However they never learned from the experience ( or, at least, some of them never learned ) and they would continue to openly chat about dark subjects on our board, which put our board in danger as well.
The moderators had to be strong but fair against these new-comers, especially knowing that they (the moderators) could be actively attacked (digitally) at any time.
Occasionally one of these new members would decide to DDOS ( Distributed Denial Of Service ) us, however they apparently forgot what message board they were attempting to DDOS, and it always ended very badly for them.
We would also occasionally get someone with quite a bit of knowledge in various subjects - some of it very rare and hard-to-come-by. It would be terrible if that member left and took their knowledge with them.
They would complain that there were too many noobs asking questions on the message board and it would be better if there was a higher level of knowledge and experience needed before the noobs could enter the message board or post a question.
Once I told one of these members, “Ok then. Let’s say that thing you’ve been talking about for the past two weeks, and calling everyone else a noob for not understanding it, is the knowledge limit. I know that you only first read about it two and a half weeks ago. Let’s say I make that the limit and predate it three weeks ago and kick your butt out of this community ?"
“That’s not very fair”, he protested.
I told him, “None of us know where the next genius is coming from. The main members of this community, the ones that input more than everyone else, have come from incredibly varied environments. Some with only a few weeks knowledge are adding more to the community every week compared to members who have been with us for years. One of the members you’ve dissed in the past couple of weeks could in turn create the next piece of software that all of us use. We don’t know that. What we need to do is have a community that is absolutely inclusive for every single person on the planet no matter where they’ve come from, what their wealth is, what their nation state does, and to keep our elitism in check.”
“Ok, fair enough, I’m sorry, please don’t kick me out.” was the usual result.
These were very intelligent folks, however they had to be reminded that we are a single species moving through time and space together as one.
(This is where you’d see the screen go all watery-wavy as the scene morphs back to me figuring out this double-spending problem)
As you may tell, I don’t tolerate elitist attitudes very well.
Which also helped when I turned towards the elitist attitudes I read in some of these academic papers and crypto white papers ( some of which were more like notes than white papers ) and messages on the crypto forums and mailing lists.
“ ‘It’s impossible to solve the Byzantine Generals Problem’ they say ? Let’s see about that !”
Byzantine General’s Dilemma
The problem is written a little bit differently depending upon where you read it.
An occasional academic may be more well-read than others and becomes the “official” wording used by many others.
I’ll paraphrase it a wee bit just so you get a general idea of the problem (pun intended).
We go back to the time of the city-states.
This is before the notion of sovereign states - there’s just a bunch of individual city-states that control the surrounding nearby country side.
Every so often a bunch of these city-states would get together and form something called an empire.
Alliances would change and friends would become enemies and enemies friends on a month-to-month and year-to-year basis.
To expand the empire the bunch of city-states would send armies controlled by generals to take over an adjacent city-state.
These city-states are huge (for their time) walled cities with armies in strong fortifications.
Let’s say there are six generals from six empire city-states that surround an adjacent city-state - all generals and their armies are equidistant from each other.
They cannot trust one another because at any moment one of them may become an enemy. Or they could be an enemy pretending to be a friend.
Due to the defensive forces of the defending city-state, the six generals know that they could take the city if every one of them attacked at the same time from around the city.
But if only a few attacked and the others retreated then the attackers would be wiped out and the surviving city-states, with their generals and their armies intact, would end up over-powering and enslaving their previous friendly city-states.
No-one could trust any other.
(This has massive parallels with modern day sovereign nations and their playing of the game with weapons, armies/air forces/navies, economics, currency, trade agreements, banks, education, health, wealth, and so on)
The generals have to send a message to the other generals telling them if they’re going to attack or retreat.
The problem is that a general could send a message to the general to his left saying that he’ll attack and send a second message to the general to his right that he will retreat.
Some possible solutions said that there should be two lieutenants to receive the message from the general and that they could check each others message to confirm that they are indeed identical before passing the messages onto the left and right messengers.
However the messengers in turn could change the message from “attack” to “retreat” or vice versa or not deliver the message at all.
Plus the generals, once a message has been sent out as “attack” could turn around and retreat, or vice versa.
I thought to myself, “I bet the folks who thought up this problem are feeling pretty damn smug about themselves.”
However I was a moderator of an assembly community.
I’d translated the DirectX8 C++ COM headers into their x86 assembly equivalent (using techniques built by others far more smarter than me, and with help for some files when DX8.1 was translated), built a PIC micro controller assembler in x86 assembly language, and many other things.
And because I've done six impossible things this morning, why not round it off with creating a solution to the Byzantine Generals Dilemma !
Elitist ego ? What elitist ego ? They’re all amateurs !
Let us begin:
“Ok,” I thought to myself. “let’s start at the beginning. We need a network. What does that look like ?”
The Generals are going to be represented as computers. The servers in the network. The nodes.
The messages are going to be the data travelling between them.
Transactions will be used as the first example of data.
For those reading, hold your hands in front of you - touch the bottom of the palms together with the fingers far apart, thumbs touching each other, twist your elbow and wrists so that the fingers are pointing upwards - slightly curved.
Fingers as Nodes
These are the nodes in the network.
The node where the thumbs touch is your own node.
No node can trust each other.
For this network structure to work, it must work even with every single node actively hostile toward one another.
“Surely the network can trust my node. I’m good ! “, you may say to yourself.
But you would be wrong.
This network is not about you. It must exist even when you don’t.
If there were a hundred nodes then it’d be ninety-nine to one against you.
As far as the network is concerned, there’s ninety-nine nodes that cannot trust you compared to your one.
So accepting that all nodes cannot trust one another, plus they are actively hostile toward one another, we can …
“But hang on ! ”, you say. “What do you mean ‘actively hostile’ ? Surely they’re not all hostile ? ”
Even if most of the time nodes will play nice with one another, the rules of the game must be structured in such a way that they will work even if all participants were actively hostile toward one another .
Because if it still worked with everyone having a go at each other then you would’ve built something that could last for a very long time.
You could build something whereby sovereign nations could no-longer undermine other sovereign nations.
It would be the great equaliser that would allow stronger nations to stop screwing around with weaker nations.
It’s the ultimate golf handicapping system. Everyone could play this game.
Kind of like my moderating style from the assembly days.
So we have these hostile nodes.
It has to be able to work with any type of message or data package. Initially it will be built for electronic cash transactions.
I will type it as "messages (transactions)" below to indicate that the messages are the messages in the Byzantine Generals Dilemma and that the message could be any data whatsoever - "transactions" just being the first. Plus in a roundabout way a message is also a transaction whereby a transaction doesn't have to be only for electronic cash - it's just an indication of what items are being transacted.
We want to send messages (transactions) between them and make sure everyone agrees that the messages (transactions) are correct.
That implies that every single node would have to store an exact copy of all the messages (transactions) and be able to read through them and confirm that they are valid.
And whenever a node receives a message (transaction) it would check it for validity and if it’s ok then that message (transaction) would be passed onto the adjacent nodes.
But how to stop a node changing the message (transaction) contents and sending different results to two adjacent nodes ?
How about taking the possibility of messages (transactions) being able to be changed out of the problem completely ?
We could using private/public keys to sign the messages (transactions) so that they couldn’t be changed.
The owner could sign a message (transaction) with the owners private key and everyone could check its validity with the owners public key, but not be able to change it.
Right. The messaging ( transactions/ data/ etc ) part of the problem is partially solved.
Now how do I solve the generals problem so that they all play nicely with one another ?
If we can make sure all generals (nodes) can get the identical data and that they can all validate that the data is identical and unchanged then the Byzantine Generals Dilemma would be solved.
Data Chunks
It became apparent that every major node on a network would have to store an entire copy of all of the data so that they could verify that the data was correct and hadn’t been modified.
The data would probably end up looking like a list or stack, with each incoming valid message (transaction) placed on top of the previous messages (transactions).
What looks like a stack but hasn’t got the memory restrictions like a normal assembly stack ?
When I was reminiscing about the Amiga 500 days I recalled having to muck about with IFF.
That’s the Interchange File Format.
The basics of it is like this:
In a plain text file there are chunks of data.
Each chunk of data begins with a chunk identifier - four characters that indicate to a program what type of data resides within that chunk (example “WAVE”, “FORM”, “NAME”).
An IFF file can have many data chunks of differing types.
The .AVI (audio/video), .ILBM (bitmap) and .WAV (audio wave) file formats are based upon the IFF.
I thought, “What if one of these data chunks was called ‘MSG ’, ‘DATA’ or ‘TSTN’ (TranSacTioN) ? ”
That might work.
Where would the proof-of-work thing come into play ?
Let’s say we replace the four-character-identifier with a header so that the proof-of-work can be done on it ?
That means the header would now include an identifier for what type of data is included within the chunk, plus a value used to modify the difficulty for generating a hash (the number of zeros needed to prepend the generated hash), a random value which increments as hashes are attempted so that the header data is slightly different for each hash attempt, plus the data itself.
But once a correct hash is generated, that particular node would mint electronic cash to pay for the electricity used.
Remember: The electronic cash is supposed to cover the actual fiat currency costs involved in doing the proof-of-work computations.
As the owner of the node computer is paid by an employer in fiat currency and has paid personal tax on it, and they have used that fiat currency to pay their electricity provider (which in turn pays company, state and value-added or goods&service taxes), then the electronic cash is equivalent to swapping your own money for a soft drink can from a vending machine.
Except, due to the media of this system, you’d be able to go to another vending machine and reenter your soft drink can for a refund in fiat currency again ( minus a restocking fee ) and the vending machine could be anywhere on the planet.
That means an extra message (transaction) would have to be included within the chunks data for the minted electronic cash.
If there must be at least two messages (transactions) within a data chunk - the actual message (transaction) plus the message (transaction) for the node that generates the hash - then maybe there could be more messages (transactions) stored in each data chunk ? How would a bunch of messages (transactions) be stored inside a data chunk ?
I remembered learning about binary space partitioning around 2006.
BSP trees were used to store 3D graphic polygons that were able to be quickly traversed so that a game could decide which scenery to display to the game player.
Quake 3 Arena and Medal of Honour: Allied Assault ( which uses Q3A codebase) used BSP trees for storing the scenery. Wherever the player was looking the tree would be traversed and only the polygons (triangles) that were viewable would be rendered by the graphics chip. Try to think of the players view in a game was like a searchlight beam and whatever the light touches is rendered onto a persons computer screen and everything else is ignored- unseen and not rendered.
“I wonder if I could break the transactions up into a binary space partitioned tree ?”
For those interested, a wee bit of light reading is here: Binary Space Partitioning
A binary space partitioned tree begins at one polygon and uses its surface as a plane to cut throughout the rest of the scene.
This kind of plane: Geometry Plane
Each polygon the plane hits gets sliced in two.
Note: The ‘node’ word used below is used for talking about the nodes in a BSP tree - not nodes in a computer network. Think of nodes as where an actual tree branch splits into two smaller branches.
All the polygons in front of the plane go into the left branch (node) and all the polygons behind the plane go into the right branch (node).
Traversing each branch (node) in turn, a polygon is chosen closest to the middle of the remaining branch (node) scenery and another plane slices the branch (node) in two.
The traversal continues until the entire scenery has been sliced up into left/ right (or up/ down) branches (nodes) and they all end up at the leaves (nodes) which store the actual polygon geometry.
If we use the messages (transactions) as the equivalent of the polygon geometry then we could have a bunch of messages (transactions) in the leaf nodes at the bottom of a tree-like structure inside a data chunk.
Instead of a group of triangle vertices ( polygon geometry ) there would be a single message (transaction).
But how to connect them all up ?
A BSP tree is linked up by having a parent node pointing to the two child nodes, but that’s in memory.
The BSP file that’s stored on a disc drive can be easily modified ( easy as in it’s possible instead of impossible ).
The messages (transactions) within a chunk cannot be allowed to be changed.
What if, instead of memory pointers or offsets pointing parents to children we use one of those crypto hashing functions ?
The bottom-most leaf nodes could use data specifically from their message (transaction) to generate a node hash, right ?
Parent Branch nodes could create a hash using the hashes of their two children hashes.
This would create a tree-like structure within a data chunk where the topmost parent hash could be included within the data chunks proof-of-work header.
This would allow all the messages (transactions) to be locked into a tree that doesn’t allow them to be modified because all parent node hashes would have to be recalculated and the trees root hash would be different from the original generated hash.
And that would mean that the entire proof-of-work hash value would be changed.
The same mechanism used to transfer the transaction data around the network would also be used to send the chunks of data.
If a network node received a changed dataChunk and compared it with one they already held then they’d notice the proof-of-work is different and would know someone was attempting to modify the data.
Bloody [redacted] ! I think this might actually work.
I email (2) to inform him that I was again making progress on the issue.
I explained the idea of having a simplified BSP tree to store the messages (transactions) into a dataChunk and have them all hashed together into a tree with the proof-of-work plus parent hash at the top.
He said, “If I change the transaction stuff to use this method I’m going to have to throw out half my white paper and a third of my code”.
“Well, “ I replied. “You can keep using your current transaction stuff if you want. It can never work in a no-trust environment but if that makes you happy then stay with it. For me - I’m going to take the red pill and continue down this path and see where it gets me. I’m also working on solving the Byzantine Generals Dilemma.”
“Ok. ok”, he said. “I’ll go with what you’ve come up with. But what are you stuffing about with the Byzantine problem ? It’s an impossible crypto puzzle and has nothing to do with electronic cash.”
“It has everything to do with an actual working electronic cash system”, I said. “If it can be solved then we could use a peer-to-peer network for transferring all the data about the place ! Kinda like Napster.”
“Didn’t Napster get shut down because it used a central server ?”, (2) retorted.
“What’s another peer-to-peer network ? IRC ? Tor ?, BitTorrent ?”
“I think we can use IRC to hold the initial node addresses until such time the network is big enough for large permanent nodes to appear”, (2) suggested.
(2) asked, “What’s to stop nodes from sending different dataChunks to other nodes ? If they’re just stacked on top of one-another then they can be swapped in and out at any time. That’s why a third party server is needed for setting the official time on the network for the transactions. Someone could create different transactions and change the time to whatever they want if they can use whatever time they choose.”
I said I’ll think on it some more.
A Kronos Stamp Server
If a third party cannot be used for a time stamp server then we’d have to reevaluate what is meant by time in a computer network.
What if how people think about time is actually wrong and everyone is assuming it to be something that it really isn’t ?
If you hold one fist in front of you to represent time - call it ‘now’ time.
Now Time
If you hold another fist after the first fist you can call it ‘after now’ time.
After Now Time
If you hold another fist before the first fist you can call it ‘before now’ time.
Before Now Time
What we’re actually looking at is a chronological order stamp. The actual time itself is pretty much irrelevant except for when comparing two things in their chronological order.
It should work whether the ‘now’ time is the time shown on your clock/watch right now, or on a date two hundred years from now, or 1253BC ( Tuesday ).
The before/ now/ after can be adjusted accordingly:
after ( Wednesday )
now ( 1253BC Tuesday )
before ( Monday )
And if the time value used is the time shown on your clock, is it the same as the time value shown on your watch ? On the microwave ? DVD player ? Computer ? Phone ? You may find that all the time pieces inside your own home vary by a few seconds or even a few minutes !
In an office almost every single person has a timepiece that has a different time to everyone else - even if it’s only different by a few milliseconds.
Does that mean as you walk from your kitchen ( showing 2:02pm on the wall ) into the lounge ( showing 2:01 on the DVD player ) that’s you’ve just entered a time portal and been magically transported back in time by a minute ?
Of course not. They’re all equally valid time values that humans have made up to be roughly synchronised with one-another.
All that really matters is the range of valid time values used to indicate “This is Now”, “This is Next” or “This was Before”.
If the network nodes all agree on what range of time values should be valid to be “now” or “near now” then each node could use its own time value in any data messages (transactions or dataChunks) and no third party timestamp server would be required.
I email (2) and let him know the time-stamp server issue has been resolved by having the nodes use a Kronos-Stamp.
“What the [redacted] is a ‘Kronos-Stamp’ ? ”, (2) asked.
I give him the explanation I gave to you ( the Reader ) above.
“But what’s this ‘Kronos’ word mean ?”, (2) asked.
“It’s short for “Chronological Order. It’s a Chronological Order Stamp. We don’t need a Time-Stamp any more,” I replied.
“But what’s with the ‘K’ ?”
“To annoy all those folks who’d rather get furious about misspelt words than try and understand the concept that’s being explained. ”
“Well, the crypto community won’t like it spelt like that. We’re going to have to call it a Time-Stamp server because that’s what they understand,” (2) said.
I said, “Time-Stamps are for systems using third party servers. Chronological Order Stamps are for peer-to-peer networks.”
“Ok,” (2) said. “We can use this time thing for making sure the dataChunks are in a chronological order but what stops someone from just changing the time of their computer to be a little earlier than someone else and having their version of the data accepted by everyone else?”
I said I’ll think on it some more.
A Chain of Data Chunks
On another project I was rereading some information about rendering graphical data.
In 3D graphics triangles are used to create any object you see onscreen.
Example of Triangle types:
Triangle Types
Each numbered dot represents a vertex.
The data for the vertices are placed into arrays called buffers.
They’re just a long list of data points which are loaded onto a graphics card and told to be drawn.
Triangle Strip
A triangle strip is a strip of triangles which share the data points from the previous triangle.
Each triangle in the strip is drawn alternating between clockwise/counter-clockwise (indicated by the red and green arrows)
The very first triangle must have all of its vertices added (all three vertices 1,2,3)
Every other triangle in the strip only has to add one more single vertex and reuse the previous two vertices.
The second triangle just adds the data for the vertex (4) and reuses vertices 2 and 3 that’s already embedded inside the strip.
This makes the strip incredibly compact in size for the data it’s meant to represent plus locks each triangle inside the strip and they cannot be accidentally used elsewhere.
If a triangle was wanted to be drawn in a different order then an entirely new triangle strip would have to be created.
A key side affect is that a triangle strip can be set to start drawing at any vertices (except vertices 2 and 3) and the entire strip from that data point onwards will be drawn.
I was staring at this for a long time thinking “This could be used for the electronic cash project somehow, but how exactly ?”
I kept going through the explanation for the triangle strip again and again trying to understand what I was seeing.
Then it dawned on me.
The triangles were the data in a triangle strip.
The chunks were the data in the electronic cash project.
If the triangles were actually the dataChunks then that means the vertices were the proof-of-work header, with the embedded root hash for the messages/ transactions.
The lines in the triangle strip represented the reuse of previous vertex data.
So that means I could reuse the proof-of-work hash from a previous dataChunk and embed that into the next proof-of-work as well !
And just like a triangle strip the dataChunks couldn’t be moved elsewhere unless all the surrounding proof-of-work hashes were redone again.
It reinforces the Kronos Stamp by embedding the previous proof-of-work hash into it so we know what came before now and what was next after previous.
If the entire network was using their cpu power to generate these proof-of-work hashes then a hostile actor would need half the processing power to get a fifty percent chance of generating the proof-of-work hash for a block and modifying the data.
However every second block on average would be generated by an opposing hostile actor and so whatever the fifty percent hostile actor was attempting to do wouldn’t last for very long.
DataChunk Chain
I needed to have some of the math for this looked at to see if I was on the right track.
I email (2) and let him know about this idea of hooking together the dataChunks like a chain so that they couldn’t be modified without redoing the proof-of-work hashing.
He liked the idea of a chain.
I said, “You see how all the appended dataChunk headers reuse the hash from the previous dataChunk header ? Take a look at the very first dataChunk.”
“What’s so special about that” , (2) asks.
“Well,” I say. “The first dataChunk header hasn’t got any previous hashes it can use, so in the beginning it will have to use a made up ‘previous hash’ in its header. In the beginning it has to use a manually create hash. In the beginning… get it?”
“What ?”, (2) asks.
“The very first data chunk is the Genesis dataChunk. In the beginning there is the Genesis dataChunk”, I reply.
He said he likes that idea very much as he’d just started being involved in a church in the past year or so.
I ask him to get the other cryptos he’s in contact with to play around with the numbers and see if this would work.
(2) asked, “Hang on. How would this solve the double-spending problem ?”
I'll stop this story here for now and post a follow-up depending upon its reception.
I guess I've found reddit's posting character limit. 40,000 characters. There was going to be another 10,000 characters in this post however that will have to wait till next time.
Bitcoin Origins - part 3
This is a continuation from the previous reddit post:
Bitcoin Origins
Cheers,
Phil
(Scronty)
vu.hn
submitted by Scronty to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Origins - part 2

Afternoon, All.
This is a continuation from the previous reddit post:
Bitcoin Origins
The following are a few notes I've been making on the original development of the tech behind Bitcoin.
This is still in early draft form so expect the layout and flow to be cleaned up over time.
Also be aware that the initial release of the Bitcoin white paper and code was what we had cut down to from earlier ideas.
This means that some of the ideas below will not correspond to what would end up being made public.
As I'm paraphrasing dim memories some of the sections are out-of-order whereby some things occurred earlier rather than later. As I recall more I'll be updating this story elsewhere for uploading when it appears more substantial.
As noted on the first post ( link supplied above ):
There is no verification of truth here.
There is absolutely no evidential proof that I had any part in the project.
Take this as just a fictional story if you wish.
Bitcoin Logo
BitCoin Origins
Six Months In A Leaky Boat
continued ...
“You’re saying that we can use this proof-of-work thing to inject electronic cash into the network and have it tied to fiat currencies, but how would the network know what the local fiat currency is to figure out the correct fiat-currency-to-electronic-cash exchange rate ?”, (2) asked.
“Maybe we could have a server that keeps a record of what the various electricity companies charge and have the software get the values from there ?”, I suggested. “Some of these new mobile phones, the smart phones, the cellular network phones in folks pockets, have GPS chips incorporated into them, right ? And everyone has them or will be getting them as they become more popular. This means everyone will have a device on them which will allow the software to include a GPS location so that the network knows which exchange rate to use for that particular minted cash.
“But how will the network know that the GPS coordinates haven’t been changed and set to another location ?”, (2) asked. “Wouldn’t that mean relying on a trusted third party again ? I thought you said we have to get away from that ? If we cannot trust a single computer for minting cash into the network then maybe we shouldn’t trust any at all ?”
“Uhh… dunno,” I replied. “I’ll get back to that later”, I said.
“Ok, ” (2) said. “How are we going to have the transactions sent to other people on the network ? All the other white papers are expecting people to connect directly to one of the trusted computers to purchase the electronic cash and to transfer it to someone else through them. If we’re not going to use a trusted computer for this and will have the proof-of-work generate the cash, then how do people receive or pay the cash ? Also: How would the network trust that the cash is valid if no computer is being used for time-stamping and validating the cash ?”
I told him I’d have to think about it.
Multiple ideas were given and discarded. He consulted with (3) about every possible solution and every one was a failure.
They either resulted in having to rely on at least one server to hook everything together or would break if multiple transaction messages were sent at the same time to different computers.
After a week or so of this I’d finally burnt myself out and decided that it’s quite possible that everyone else was correct when they said that you couldn’t solve double-spending in a digital world without depending upon a trusted third party.
I stopped emailing (2) at that point, hoping it’d all go away.
After a week he emailed me asking if I’d come up with another solution for testing.
I told him that I don’t think there is a solution and maybe he should just use part of what he had in his original white paper and rely on a trusted third party like everyone else.
He said something along the lines of “Like [redacted] I will ! You’ve taken me down this path of not trusting a single computer and that’s what I want. No-one's done that before and if we break it, it will probably change everything ! ”
I told him I’m taking a break from it all for a while.
Another week passes and he emails me again.
He said, “How are you feeling ? Sorry to be so harsh on you but I really need this to work. I’ll leave you be if that’s what you want. Just let me know when you’re able to continue.”
Another week goes by and whenever I begin to think of the problem I just say to myself “To [redacted] with him and his electronic cash problem.”
For comfort I turn to perusing through some of my old Win32 Asm proggys (I called them “proggys” because I thought of them as small, incomplete computer programs - kind of like examples and tutorials).
I also begun reminiscing about the Amiga 500 days and the proggys I made back then (late 1980’s through to mid 1990’s).
Knowing that one of the most difficult issues with electronic cash revolved around the networking architecture and how data would be propagated by the networked computers I began going through some of the discussions I had back in 2005 and 2006 with someone who was attempting to make a tank game.
I explained to him the main difference between TCP and UDP ( Transmission Control Protocol User Datagram Protocol ).
If you need data packages to arrive in a particular order with confirmation that they’ve arrived then you’d use TCP.
If you need velocity of data packets you can throw all the protocol error checking out and use UDP.
That’s one of the reasons great online multi-player games uses UDP. It reduces the latency with the data being transmitted around the network.
The main difficulty is in building the gaming system in such a way so that the data the servers and clients transmit and receive work when data packets never arrive.
TCP guarantees delivery if the network is functioning while with UDP you do not know if a particular packet ever arrived or if packets arrived in a different order to transmission due to separate packets traversing the internet via different pathways.
Many online games were usually built for single-player first and the multi-player code would be chucked into the codebase near the end of development.
This would mean that all of the game code objects and classes were made to use known values at any particular time and could not work in a UDP environment without re-architecting the entire code base from scratch.
You’d find many of the games that also included multi-player gameplay options ended up using TCP for the network communications and this made all of these games slow over the network with high latency and unplayable lag as the gameplay would be faster than the network data packets telling your computer where your opponents are located.
The various tanks games around 2005 were built as above. I convinced this person to focus on the multi-player aspect of the game because he could always add in single-player later on.
Multiple players would have to drive and fire tanks around a field while being updated continuously about the complete state of the network.
This is usually accomplished by having a single server that receives all of the current data from all the player clients and dishes out the official game state back to all of those player clients so that everyone knows who went where, who fired at what and who has been hit.
However even with using UDP there is a bottleneck in the network with the server itself only being able to process a peak number of connections and data throughput every second. It could only scale so high.
We had talked about different ways to improve this by possibly having relay servers on some of the players computers or having a more peer-to-peer like structure so that each player client only had to get the latest data from its nearest neighbours in the network and only transmit to their peers so that a fully server-less multi-player game could be created.
How the data could be moved about without someone creating a hack that could change the data packages in their favour couldn’t be figured out.
In the end he went with using a central server with both TCP and UDP depending upon what data packages were needed to be sent - general gameplay data (tank movements) via UDP and server state (for confirming who hit what) via TCP.
If a peer-to-peer network was to be used for electronic cash then to be scalable the data packages must be able to be transmitted with as high a velocity as possible. It must work with the majority of transmissions using UDP.
If two-way communication is required then a return ip/port can be included within a UDP data package or a TCP connection could be used.
I had also read and reread this thing that has been going around the crypto community for ages called the Byzantine Generals Dilemma (or worded in a similar way).
It’s supposed to be impossible to solve and at least a couple of well-known academics and crypto folks had “proven” it was impossible to solve only a few years previously. They had pretty much staked their reputations on the fact that it was unsolvable.
I thought “Wouldn’t it be absolutely hilarious if the solution to this double-spending problem is also the solution to the impossible Byzantine Generals Dilemma and could be found using ideas from the Amiga days and 3D programming and uses multi-player gaming techniques ? That would annoy the [redacted] out of the crypto community and take those elitists down a peg or two !”
(This is where you’d see the screen go all watery-wavy as the scene morphs to a time in the past when I was a moderator of the Win32 Asm community)
The assembly community and the crypto community share a lot in common.
They’re made up of some of the most brilliant folks in the computing industry where huge egos do battle against one-another.
You’d also find folks in one community existing within the other.
Both communities are made up of both light and dark actors.
The light actors are those who are very public.
They are academics, researchers, security professionals, and so on.
The dark actors are … (and that’s all I’ll say about them).
Except to say that the light crypto actors are usually doing work to undo what the dark assembly actors are doing.
It’s one [redacted] of a game !
To have a message board that was able to accommodate all actors required a few tough rules and stiff execution of them if the forum was to continue to exist.
Many of the other assembly boards were being snuffed out by government actors forcing the hosting service to shut them down.
This was mainly due to the assembly forums insistence of allowing threads to exist which showed exactly how to break and crack various websites/ networks/ software/ etc.
Whenever one of these sites were shut down the members would disperse to the various remaining assembly boards.
So we received an influx of new members every few months whenever their previous venue went up in smoke.
However they never learned from the experience ( or, at least, some of them never learned ) and they would continue to openly chat about dark subjects on our board, which put our board in danger as well.
The moderators had to be strong but fair against these new-comers, especially knowing that they (the moderators) could be actively attacked (digitally) at any time.
Occasionally one of these new members would decide to DDOS ( Distributed Denial Of Service ) us, however they apparently forgot what message board they were attempting to DDOS, and it always ended very badly for them.
We would also occasionally get someone with quite a bit of knowledge in various subjects - some of it very rare and hard-to-come-by. It would be terrible if that member left and took their knowledge with them.
They would complain that there were too many noobs asking questions on the message board and it would be better if there was a higher level of knowledge and experience needed before the noobs could enter the message board or post a question.
Once I told one of these members, “Ok then. Let’s say that thing you’ve been talking about for the past two weeks, and calling everyone else a noob for not understanding it, is the knowledge limit. I know that you only first read about it two and a half weeks ago. Let’s say I make that the limit and predate it three weeks ago and kick your butt out of this community ?"
“That’s not very fair”, he protested.
I told him, “None of us know where the next genius is coming from. The main members of this community, the ones that input more than everyone else, have come from incredibly varied environments. Some with only a few weeks knowledge are adding more to the community every week compared to members who have been with us for years. One of the members you’ve dissed in the past couple of weeks could in turn create the next piece of software that all of us use. We don’t know that. What we need to do is have a community that is absolutely inclusive for every single person on the planet no matter where they’ve come from, what their wealth is, what their nation state does, and to keep our elitism in check.”
“Ok, fair enough, I’m sorry, please don’t kick me out.” was the usual result.
These were very intelligent folks, however they had to be reminded that we are a single species moving through time and space together as one.
(This is where you’d see the screen go all watery-wavy as the scene morphs back to me figuring out this double-spending problem)
As you may tell, I don’t tolerate elitist attitudes very well.
Which also helped when I turned towards the elitist attitudes I read in some of these academic papers and crypto white papers ( some of which were more like notes than white papers ) and messages on the crypto forums and mailing lists.
“ ‘It’s impossible to solve the Byzantine Generals Problem’ they say ? Let’s see about that !”
Byzantine General’s Dilemma
The problem is written a little bit differently depending upon where you read it.
An occasional academic may be more well-read than others and becomes the “official” wording used by many others.
I’ll paraphrase it a wee bit just so you get a general idea of the problem (pun intended).
We go back to the time of the city-states.
This is before the notion of sovereign states - there’s just a bunch of individual city-states that control the surrounding nearby country side.
Every so often a bunch of these city-states would get together and form something called an empire.
Alliances would change and friends would become enemies and enemies friends on a month-to-month and year-to-year basis.
To expand the empire the bunch of city-states would send armies controlled by generals to take over an adjacent city-state.
These city-states are huge (for their time) walled cities with armies in strong fortifications.
Let’s say there are six generals from six empire city-states that surround an adjacent city-state - all generals and their armies are equidistant from each other.
They cannot trust one another because at any moment one of them may become an enemy. Or they could be an enemy pretending to be a friend.
Due to the defensive forces of the defending city-state, the six generals know that they could take the city if every one of them attacked at the same time from around the city.
But if only a few attacked and the others retreated then the attackers would be wiped out and the surviving city-states, with their generals and their armies intact, would end up over-powering and enslaving their previous friendly city-states.
No-one could trust any other.
(This has massive parallels with modern day sovereign nations and their playing of the game with weapons, armies/air forces/navies, economics, currency, trade agreements, banks, education, health, wealth, and so on)
The generals have to send a message to the other generals telling them if they’re going to attack or retreat.
The problem is that a general could send a message to the general to his left saying that he’ll attack and send a second message to the general to his right that he will retreat.
Some possible solutions said that there should be two lieutenants to receive the message from the general and that they could check each others message to confirm that they are indeed identical before passing the messages onto the left and right messengers.
However the messengers in turn could change the message from “attack” to “retreat” or vice versa or not deliver the message at all.
Plus the generals, once a message has been sent out as “attack” could turn around and retreat, or vice versa.
I thought to myself, “I bet the folks who thought up this problem are feeling pretty damn smug about themselves.”
However I was a moderator of an assembly community.
I’d translated the DirectX8 C++ COM headers into their x86 assembly equivalent (using techniques built by others far more smarter than me, and with help for some files when DX8.1 was translated), built a PIC micro controller assembler in x86 assembly language, and many other things.
And because I've done six impossible things this morning, why not round it off with creating a solution to the Byzantine Generals Dilemma !
Elitist ego ? What elitist ego ? They’re all amateurs !
Let us begin:
“Ok,” I thought to myself. “let’s start at the beginning. We need a network. What does that look like ?”
The Generals are going to be represented as computers. The servers in the network. The nodes.
The messages are going to be the data travelling between them.
Transactions will be used as the first example of data.
For those reading, hold your hands in front of you - touch the bottom of the palms together with the fingers far apart, thumbs touching each other, twist your elbow and wrists so that the fingers are pointing upwards - slightly curved.
Fingers as Nodes
These are the nodes in the network.
The node where the thumbs touch is your own node.
No node can trust each other.
For this network structure to work, it must work even with every single node actively hostile toward one another.
“Surely the network can trust my node. I’m good ! “, you may say to yourself.
But you would be wrong.
This network is not about you. It must exist even when you don’t.
If there were a hundred nodes then it’d be ninety-nine to one against you.
As far as the network is concerned, there’s ninety-nine nodes that cannot trust you compared to your one.
So accepting that all nodes cannot trust one another, plus they are actively hostile toward one another, we can …
“But hang on ! ”, you say. “What do you mean ‘actively hostile’ ? Surely they’re not all hostile ? ”
Even if most of the time nodes will play nice with one another, the rules of the game must be structured in such a way that they will work even if all participants were actively hostile toward one another .
Because if it still worked with everyone having a go at each other then you would’ve built something that could last for a very long time.
You could build something whereby sovereign nations could no-longer undermine other sovereign nations.
It would be the great equaliser that would allow stronger nations to stop screwing around with weaker nations.
It’s the ultimate golf handicapping system. Everyone could play this game.
Kind of like my moderating style from the assembly days.
So we have these hostile nodes.
It has to be able to work with any type of message or data package. Initially it will be built for electronic cash transactions.
I will type it as "messages (transactions)" below to indicate that the messages are the messages in the Byzantine Generals Dilemma and that the message could be any data whatsoever - "transactions" just being the first. Plus in a roundabout way a message is also a transaction whereby a transaction doesn't have to be only for electronic cash - it's just an indication of what items are being transacted.
We want to send messages (transactions) between them and make sure everyone agrees that the messages (transactions) are correct.
That implies that every single node would have to store an exact copy of all the messages (transactions) and be able to read through them and confirm that they are valid.
And whenever a node receives a message (transaction) it would check it for validity and if it’s ok then that message (transaction) would be passed onto the adjacent nodes.
But how to stop a node changing the message (transaction) contents and sending different results to two adjacent nodes ?
How about taking the possibility of messages (transactions) being able to be changed out of the problem completely ?
We could using private/public keys to sign the messages (transactions) so that they couldn’t be changed.
The owner could sign a message (transaction) with the owners private key and everyone could check its validity with the owners public key, but not be able to change it.
Right. The messaging ( transactions/ data/ etc ) part of the problem is partially solved.
Now how do I solve the generals problem so that they all play nicely with one another ?
If we can make sure all generals (nodes) can get the identical data and that they can all validate that the data is identical and unchanged then the Byzantine Generals Dilemma would be solved.
Data Chunks
It became apparent that every major node on a network would have to store an entire copy of all of the data so that they could verify that the data was correct and hadn’t been modified.
The data would probably end up looking like a list or stack, with each incoming valid message (transaction) placed on top of the previous messages (transactions).
What looks like a stack but hasn’t got the memory restrictions like a normal assembly stack ?
When I was reminiscing about the Amiga 500 days I recalled having to muck about with IFF.
That’s the Interchange File Format.
The basics of it is like this:
In a plain text file there are chunks of data.
Each chunk of data begins with a chunk identifier - four characters that indicate to a program what type of data resides within that chunk (example “WAVE”, “FORM”, “NAME”).
An IFF file can have many data chunks of differing types.
The .AVI (audio/video), .ILBM (bitmap) and .WAV (audio wave) file formats are based upon the IFF.
I thought, “What if one of these data chunks was called ‘MSG ’, ‘DATA’ or ‘TSTN’ (TranSacTioN) ? ”
That might work.
Where would the proof-of-work thing come into play ?
Let’s say we replace the four-character-identifier with a header so that the proof-of-work can be done on it ?
That means the header would now include an identifier for what type of data is included within the chunk, plus a value used to modify the difficulty for generating a hash (the number of zeros needed to prepend the generated hash), a random value which increments as hashes are attempted so that the header data is slightly different for each hash attempt, plus the data itself.
But once a correct hash is generated, that particular node would mint electronic cash to pay for the electricity used.
Remember: The electronic cash is supposed to cover the actual fiat currency costs involved in doing the proof-of-work computations.
As the owner of the node computer is paid by an employer in fiat currency and has paid personal tax on it, and they have used that fiat currency to pay their electricity provider (which in turn pays company, state and value-added or goods&service taxes), then the electronic cash is equivalent to swapping your own money for a soft drink can from a vending machine.
Except, due to the media of this system, you’d be able to go to another vending machine and reenter your soft drink can for a refund in fiat currency again ( minus a restocking fee ) and the vending machine could be anywhere on the planet.
That means an extra message (transaction) would have to be included within the chunks data for the minted electronic cash.
If there must be at least two messages (transactions) within a data chunk - the actual message (transaction) plus the message (transaction) for the node that generates the hash - then maybe there could be more messages (transactions) stored in each data chunk ? How would a bunch of messages (transactions) be stored inside a data chunk ?
I remembered learning about binary space partitioning around 2006.
BSP trees were used to store 3D graphic polygons that were able to be quickly traversed so that a game could decide which scenery to display to the game player.
Quake 3 Arena and Medal of Honour: Allied Assault ( which uses Q3A codebase) used BSP trees for storing the scenery. Wherever the player was looking the tree would be traversed and only the polygons (triangles) that were viewable would be rendered by the graphics chip. Try to think of the players view in a game was like a searchlight beam and whatever the light touches is rendered onto a persons computer screen and everything else is ignored- unseen and not rendered.
“I wonder if I could break the transactions up into a binary space partitioned tree ?”
For those interested, a wee bit of light reading is here: Binary Space Partitioning
A binary space partitioned tree begins at one polygon and uses its surface as a plane to cut throughout the rest of the scene.
This kind of plane: Geometry Plane
Each polygon the plane hits gets sliced in two.
Note: The ‘node’ word used below is used for talking about the nodes in a BSP tree - not nodes in a computer network. Think of nodes as where an actual tree branch splits into two smaller branches.
All the polygons in front of the plane go into the left branch (node) and all the polygons behind the plane go into the right branch (node).
Traversing each branch (node) in turn, a polygon is chosen closest to the middle of the remaining branch (node) scenery and another plane slices the branch (node) in two.
The traversal continues until the entire scenery has been sliced up into left/ right (or up/ down) branches (nodes) and they all end up at the leaves (nodes) which store the actual polygon geometry.
If we use the messages (transactions) as the equivalent of the polygon geometry then we could have a bunch of messages (transactions) in the leaf nodes at the bottom of a tree-like structure inside a data chunk.
Instead of a group of triangle vertices ( polygon geometry ) there would be a single message (transaction).
But how to connect them all up ?
A BSP tree is linked up by having a parent node pointing to the two child nodes, but that’s in memory.
The BSP file that’s stored on a disc drive can be easily modified ( easy as in it’s possible instead of impossible ).
The messages (transactions) within a chunk cannot be allowed to be changed.
What if, instead of memory pointers or offsets pointing parents to children we use one of those crypto hashing functions ?
The bottom-most leaf nodes could use data specifically from their message (transaction) to generate a node hash, right ?
Parent Branch nodes could create a hash using the hashes of their two children hashes.
This would create a tree-like structure within a data chunk where the topmost parent hash could be included within the data chunks proof-of-work header.
This would allow all the messages (transactions) to be locked into a tree that doesn’t allow them to be modified because all parent node hashes would have to be recalculated and the trees root hash would be different from the original generated hash.
And that would mean that the entire proof-of-work hash value would be changed.
The same mechanism used to transfer the transaction data around the network would also be used to send the chunks of data.
If a network node received a changed dataChunk and compared it with one they already held then they’d notice the proof-of-work is different and would know someone was attempting to modify the data.
Bloody [redacted] ! I think this might actually work.
I email (2) to inform him that I was again making progress on the issue.
I explained the idea of having a simplified BSP tree to store the messages (transactions) into a dataChunk and have them all hashed together into a tree with the proof-of-work plus parent hash at the top.
He said, “If I change the transaction stuff to use this method I’m going to have to throw out half my white paper and a third of my code”.
“Well, “ I replied. “You can keep using your current transaction stuff if you want. It can never work in a no-trust environment but if that makes you happy then stay with it. For me - I’m going to take the red pill and continue down this path and see where it gets me. I’m also working on solving the Byzantine Generals Dilemma.”
“Ok. ok”, he said. “I’ll go with what you’ve come up with. But what are you stuffing about with the Byzantine problem ? It’s an impossible crypto puzzle and has nothing to do with electronic cash.”
“It has everything to do with an actual working electronic cash system”, I said. “If it can be solved then we could use a peer-to-peer network for transferring all the data about the place ! Kinda like Napster.”
“Didn’t Napster get shut down because it used a central server ?”, (2) retorted.
“What’s another peer-to-peer network ? IRC ? Tor ?, BitTorrent ?”
“I think we can use IRC to hold the initial node addresses until such time the network is big enough for large permanent nodes to appear”, (2) suggested.
(2) asked, “What’s to stop nodes from sending different dataChunks to other nodes ? If they’re just stacked on top of one-another then they can be swapped in and out at any time. That’s why a third party server is needed for setting the official time on the network for the transactions. Someone could create different transactions and change the time to whatever they want if they can use whatever time they choose.”
I said I’ll think on it some more.
A Kronos Stamp Server
If a third party cannot be used for a time stamp server then we’d have to reevaluate what is meant by time in a computer network.
What if how people think about time is actually wrong and everyone is assuming it to be something that it really isn’t ?
If you hold one fist in front of you to represent time - call it ‘now’ time.
Now Time
If you hold another fist after the first fist you can call it ‘after now’ time.
After Now Time
If you hold another fist before the first fist you can call it ‘before now’ time.
Before Now Time
What we’re actually looking at is a chronological order stamp. The actual time itself is pretty much irrelevant except for when comparing two things in their chronological order.
It should work whether the ‘now’ time is the time shown on your clock/watch right now, or on a date two hundred years from now, or 1253BC ( Tuesday ).
The before/ now/ after can be adjusted accordingly:
after ( Wednesday )
now ( 1253BC Tuesday )
before ( Monday )
And if the time value used is the time shown on your clock, is it the same as the time value shown on your watch ? On the microwave ? DVD player ? Computer ? Phone ? You may find that all the time pieces inside your own home vary by a few seconds or even a few minutes !
In an office almost every single person has a timepiece that has a different time to everyone else - even if it’s only different by a few milliseconds.
Does that mean as you walk from your kitchen ( showing 2:02pm on the wall ) into the lounge ( showing 2:01 on the DVD player ) that’s you’ve just entered a time portal and been magically transported back in time by a minute ?
Of course not. They’re all equally valid time values that humans have made up to be roughly synchronised with one-another.
All that really matters is the range of valid time values used to indicate “This is Now”, “This is Next” or “This was Before”.
If the network nodes all agree on what range of time values should be valid to be “now” or “near now” then each node could use its own time value in any data messages (transactions or dataChunks) and no third party timestamp server would be required.
I email (2) and let him know the time-stamp server issue has been resolved by having the nodes use a Kronos-Stamp.
“What the [redacted] is a ‘Kronos-Stamp’ ? ”, (2) asked.
I give him the explanation I gave to you ( the Reader ) above.
“But what’s this ‘Kronos’ word mean ?”, (2) asked.
“It’s short for “Chronological Order. It’s a Chronological Order Stamp. We don’t need a Time-Stamp any more,” I replied.
“But what’s with the ‘K’ ?”
“To annoy all those folks who’d rather get furious about misspelt words than try and understand the concept that’s being explained. ”
“Well, the crypto community won’t like it spelt like that. We’re going to have to call it a Time-Stamp server because that’s what they understand,” (2) said.
I said, “Time-Stamps are for systems using third party servers. Chronological Order Stamps are for peer-to-peer networks.”
“Ok,” (2) said. “We can use this time thing for making sure the dataChunks are in a chronological order but what stops someone from just changing the time of their computer to be a little earlier than someone else and having their version of the data accepted by everyone else?”
I said I’ll think on it some more.
A Chain of Data Chunks
On another project I was rereading some information about rendering graphical data.
In 3D graphics triangles are used to create any object you see onscreen.
Example of Triangle types:
Triangle Types
Each numbered dot represents a vertex.
The data for the vertices are placed into arrays called buffers.
They’re just a long list of data points which are loaded onto a graphics card and told to be drawn.
Triangle Strip
A triangle strip is a strip of triangles which share the data points from the previous triangle.
Each triangle in the strip is drawn alternating between clockwise/counter-clockwise (indicated by the red and green arrows)
The very first triangle must have all of its vertices added (all three vertices 1,2,3)
Every other triangle in the strip only has to add one more single vertex and reuse the previous two vertices.
The second triangle just adds the data for the vertex (4) and reuses vertices 2 and 3 that’s already embedded inside the strip.
This makes the strip incredibly compact in size for the data it’s meant to represent plus locks each triangle inside the strip and they cannot be accidentally used elsewhere.
If a triangle was wanted to be drawn in a different order then an entirely new triangle strip would have to be created.
A key side affect is that a triangle strip can be set to start drawing at any vertices (except vertices 2 and 3) and the entire strip from that data point onwards will be drawn.
I was staring at this for a long time thinking “This could be used for the electronic cash project somehow, but how exactly ?”
I kept going through the explanation for the triangle strip again and again trying to understand what I was seeing.
Then it dawned on me.
The triangles were the data in a triangle strip.
The chunks were the data in the electronic cash project.
If the triangles were actually the dataChunks then that means the vertices were the proof-of-work header, with the embedded root hash for the messages/ transactions.
The lines in the triangle strip represented the reuse of previous vertex data.
So that means I could reuse the proof-of-work hash from a previous dataChunk and embed that into the next proof-of-work as well !
And just like a triangle strip the dataChunks couldn’t be moved elsewhere unless all the surrounding proof-of-work hashes were redone again.
It reinforces the Kronos Stamp by embedding the previous proof-of-work hash into it so we know what came before now and what was next after previous.
If the entire network was using their cpu power to generate these proof-of-work hashes then a hostile actor would need half the processing power to get a fifty percent chance of generating the proof-of-work hash for a block and modifying the data.
However every second block on average would be generated by an opposing hostile actor and so whatever the fifty percent hostile actor was attempting to do wouldn’t last for very long.
DataChunk Chain
I needed to have some of the math for this looked at to see if I was on the right track.
I email (2) and let him know about this idea of hooking together the dataChunks like a chain so that they couldn’t be modified without redoing the proof-of-work hashing.
He liked the idea of a chain.
I said, “You see how all the appended dataChunk headers reuse the hash from the previous dataChunk header ? Take a look at the very first dataChunk.”
“What’s so special about that” , (2) asks.
“Well,” I say. “The first dataChunk header hasn’t got any previous hashes it can use, so in the beginning it will have to use a made up ‘previous hash’ in its header. In the beginning it has to use a manually create hash. In the beginning… get it?”
“What ?”, (2) asks.
“The very first data chunk is the Genesis dataChunk. In the beginning there is the Genesis dataChunk”, I reply.
He said he likes that idea very much as he’d just started being involved in a church in the past year or so.
I ask him to get the other cryptos he’s in contact with to play around with the numbers and see if this would work.
(2) asked, “Hang on. How would this solve the double-spending problem ?”
I'll stop this story here for now and post a follow-up depending upon its reception.
I guess I've found reddit's posting character limit. 40,000 characters. There was going to be another 10,000 characters in this post however that will have to wait till next time.
Bitcoin Origins - part 3
This is a continuation from the previous reddit post:
Bitcoin Origins
Cheers,
Phil
(Scronty)
vu.hn
submitted by Scronty to btc [link] [comments]

Binary Options Trading - Binary Options - The Best Binary Options Trading Guide for 2017 Big Profit Generator REVIEW - is Big Profit Generator a SCAM? is the System Legit? How to Generate Consistent Income Trading Options - YouTube BEST Forex Binary Option Trading - Scenario For a Successful Forex Binary Options Strategy Automated Cash Signals REVIEW - Is Automated Cash Signals a SCAM? Binary Options System Binary Options Trading Using Martingale System And Traders Choice Strategy Best Binary Options Trading Strategy - Best Way To Make Up To $5,000 Every Day DON'T BUY The Big Cash Giveaway by Warren Anderson - The Big Cash Giveaway REVIEW Binary Options Binary Options: $10 to $3500 in 10 Minutes  IQ Option

Wealth Generator X APP System is a free binary option trading software from Daniel Mason, that claims to be able to help you make $1227 a day on complete auto-pilot. This software uses several methods of technical analysis. However, it seems that the software makes use of candlesticks and chart patterns more than any other method of technical analysis, to detect trad able signals on short term ... NADEX 5 Minute Expiration Binary Options System Called for 5CC for $5000 to $7000 Trading 3 Hours a Day on 10 Contracts Trading System Results… NEW 5CC NADEX 5 Minute Binary Options Expiration System is in use five-minute binary options system built for perpetual opportunity based on some f... + ANNOUNCING: NEW RED2.0 to Expiration - 5 Minute Binary Options System - Track Record Below - Big Cash Flow Style Generator System - Coupled with RED1.0 for Now as a Bonus+ A Most Excellent NADEX 20 Minute Binary Options System Scalper Trader for NADEX So Excellent I'm Tempted into Being Greedy and Pulling it Off the Markets so We Can Hog This All to Ourselves Big Profit Generator. Published on February 17th, 2015 by John Kane Big profit generator is a new free binary options trading system. The developers of this system claim that average people across the world went from a salary of $3200 to getting paid over $120,000 in less [&hellip... Read More → Software Verified Trader. Published on February 16th, 2015 by John Kane. Verified trader is a ... The Free Money System is the newest binary automated trading platform that claims it can help binary traders earn “free money” with only a few clicks of the mouse. Internet access, an account with Free Money System and a few simple gestures on the behalf of the trader could earn them huge amounts of money. Some binary signals providers offer free software and others charge a fee before you can gain access to information from a top trader or a specialist trading system. The cost of receiving binary options signals varies from free to the very expensive, but that is no indication of whether or not a service is legit. Providers with a high monthly ... Software Big Profit Generator. Published on February 17th, 2015 by John Kane Big profit generator is a new free binary options trading system. The developers of this system claim that average people across the world went from a salary of $3200 to getting paid over $120,000 in less [&hellip... Automated trading software allows you to trad based on preset parameters. Benzinga takes an in-depth look at some of the best softwares for 2020. Binäre Optionen. Beim binäre Optionen Trading handelt es sich um Wetten auf steigende oder fallende Kurse.Anleger erwerben also nicht den tatsächliche Vermögenswert der gehandelten Produkte (etwa Gold, Aktien, Öl, Währungen), sondern platzieren lediglich eine Wette auf deren Kursentwicklung.. Setzt man seine Wette richtig, bekommt man beim binäre Optionen Trading in der Regel zwischen ... 2PBX60 1 Hour NADEX Trading Strategy is a solid core price action trading strategy that you can use as a tool to potentially make a long-term living trading NADEX 2 Hour / 1 hour binary options. You can use 2PBX60 1 Hour NADEX Trading Strategy for your emini day trading , for your Forex day trading, for your stock day trading and your futures day trading as well. So it’s not only just for ...

[index] [3698] [7178] [16623] [1430] [15605] [25887] [9796] [26250] [29806] [25853]

Binary Options Trading - Binary Options - The Best Binary Options Trading Guide for 2017

Download Registriert InstaCash Binary Trading System oder InstaCash Automatisierten und manuellen The Finance Herald Binary Options Trading App Software Bot .. Insta Kasse Beste Binäre Optionen ... Big Profit Generator REVIEW - is Big Profit Generator a SCAM? is the System Legit? Best Binary Options Trading Strategy - Best Way To Make Up To $5,000 Every Day Binary Options Strategy. Loading... Unsubscribe from Binary Options Strategy? Cancel Unsubscribe. Working ... Freedom Binary Options Trading System, users can participate in online binary options tournaments and make money online. To start with we have to say you will find there's education binary options ... Binary option trading has a simple up or down payout structure - making it simpler to understand than other types of options trading. See the advantages of opening a binary option trading account ... The Big Cash Giveaway is a currency trading system by Warren Anderson who claims that he can help the novice marketer with little to no prior experience use a system that will allow them to make ... how to trade binary options,binary options,binary options trading,binary options strategy,binary option,binary options trading strategy,binary options tutorial,binary options trading system,binary ... This is my Automated Cash Signals review, a binary trading product which claims you’ll start getting massive results using this system. As with nearly all of these product launches, the focus of ... Trading binary options is an increasingly popular way for new investors to make a serious amount of earnings using today's most common investment tools. Though it is relatively new when compared ... In this video, I'll lay out the complete framework for our system which can help you learn how to generate consistent income trading options. And the reality...

http://binary-optiontrade.condownde.cf